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Full text of "The Oxford Church Movement : sketches and recollections"







f 



THE OXFOKD CHUECH MOVEMENT 



ABEKDEEN UNIVEBSITY PRESS. 



THE 



OXFORD CHURCH MOVEMENT 

SKETCHES AND RECOLLECTIONS 



BY THE LATE 

G. WAKELING 

WITH AN INTRODUCTION 

BY 

EAEL NELSON 



" The Church of Christ was intended to cope with human nature in 
all its forms, and surely the gifts vouchsafed it are adequate for the 
gracious purpose." 

Introduction to Tracts for the Times. 




LONDON 
SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO. 

NEW YORK: MACMILLAN & CO. 
1895 



TO 
THE MEMORY OF 

THE KEY. WILLIAM JOHN BLEW, M.A. 

OF WADHAM COLLEGE OXFORD 

WHO 
WHEN CURATE OF ST. ANNE'S SOHO 1842 

SHEWED US 
IN LIFE AND PRECEPT 

IN DEVOTION REVERENCE AND WORSHIP 
WHAT THE MOVEMENT 

THEN BEGINNING 
IN THE ENGLISH CHURCH 

REALLY WAS 

THESE SKETCHES AND RECOLLECTIONS 

ARE AFFECTIONATELY 

AND GRATEFULLY 

ebicafeb 



For the Catholic Church- 
Its establishment and increase. 

For the Eastern 

Its deliverance and union. 

For the Western 

Its adjustment and peace. 
For the British 

The supply of what is wanting in it ; 

The strengthening of what remains in it." 

BISHOP ANDEEWES' Devotions. 



INTRODUCTION 

BY 

EARL NELSON. 

I HAVE much pleasure in writing a short introduction 
to Mr. Wakeling's book. To those who, like myself, 
were under the influence of the Oxford Movement 
from early college days in 1842-43, the remembrance 
of the various works and workers must ever be of 
great and pleasing interest. But for all there is 
much instruction to be gained in seeing how in the 
great cause the hearts of men and women, of varying 
character and in different walks in life, were drawn 
in one by one to sow the good seed ; and in searching 
out the way in which the soil in every place had 
become prepared for its reception. 

Many an earnest soul had felt the deadly torpor 
that was surrounding us, but knew not the way of 
escape : hence it was that when the trumpet sounded 
so many in various classes in life were ready to 
answer to the call, and to do their part in raising 



viii INTRODUCTION. 

the Church from its slough of deadness and de- 
spondency. 

In fact, the very negligences over which we 
mourned had prepared a soil ready for the good 
seed, as well as sowers to sow it ; the want of pro- 
perly conducted services and of real pastoral work 
had created a yearning for something true and real, 
and had driven our people back upon the study of 
their Bibles and Prayer-books as the only way in 
which they could hope to discipline their daily life 
on sound Church principles. So that in after years 
it was often remarked that with all our improved 
teaching and renewed life we had failed to implant 
among our people that high standard of Church 
doctrine which shone with a bright ray here and 
there from truly noble saints in many a neglected 
parish. The beginning of the evils which had 
oppressed the Church may be traced to the infidel 
movement which brought in the French [Revolution, 
and the degraded position of our Church and the 
Erastianism of it under Walpole's Government. Mr. 
Wakeling has, therefore, wisely pointed to the great 
Evangelical revival as the first rising out of the deadly 
stupor into which the Church had been drugged. 

The principal desire of the writers of the Tracts for 
the Times is well foreshadowed in their preface 
" The Church of Christ was intended to cope with 
human nature in all its forms, and surely the gifts 



INTRODUCTION. ix 

vouchsafed it are adequate for that gracious purpose. 
There are zealous sons and servants of her English 
branch who see with sorrow that she is defrauded 
of her full usefulness by particular theories and 
principles of the present age, which interfere with 
the execution of one portion of her commission ; and 
while they consider that the revival of this portion 
of truth is especially adapted to break up existing 
parties in the Church, and to form instead a bond of 
union among all who love the Lord Jesus Christ in 
sincerity, they believe that nothing but these 
neglected doctrines, faithfully preached, will repress 
that extension of popery for which the ever multiply- 
ing divisions of the religious world are too clearly 
preparing the way." 

It is wonderful to see how these desires, written 
nearly sixty years ago, have come so near fulfilment, 
and have been abundantly blessed. 

In 1834 the Church's enemies were speculating on 
her fall : now, by God's mercy, she is full of life to 
which this book so wonderfully bears witness. But 
the same life and vigour have been imparted to those 
Christian bodies who are still, unhappily, not in full 
communion with her. 

The religious zeal which has been stirred up within 
her borders, and taking very much the same lines, 
has stimulated life among our Protestant noncon- 
formists, while it is notorious that the secessions 



x INTRODUCTION. 

of our over zealous friends to Borne have imparted 
new life and spirit to that communion also. 

NELSON. 



P.S. It has pleased God to call to his rest the 
author of these " Sketches and Recollections". 

Mr. G-. Wakeling had himself done much to sow 
the seed and advance the good cause, and was a 
true example of that humble Christian spirit through 
which the leaven was unostentatiously spread abroad 
by the daily witness of the faithful followers of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

N. 

TKAFALGAB, 26th August, 1895. 



NOTE BY THE AUTHOR 

THESE sketches and recollections are simply and 
truly what their name implies, and do not claim to 
be a chronological or systematic statement of events. 
Canon Liddon, in the few words of introduction to 
his memoir of Bishop Hamilton of Salisbury, has 
expressed what I would wish to say " In a mere 
sketch the reader will not be disappointed at finding 
neither the exhaustive treatment nor the orderly 
sequence of events which belong to a biography ". 
Still less would I presume to claim for them a place 
among the many valuable and historical works now 
published on the Church revival. They were 
originally written for the pages of the Newbery 
House Magazine, and it is only in deference to the 
wishes and opinion of many who read them there 
that they are now published in a more permanent 
form. I have endeavoured to recall some few ways 
in which, from my own personal 'knowledge, the 
Tractarian movement spread and made its influence 
felt in London and other towns and villages, and 
to describe the persons who were the prime movers 
and workers, and to whose loyal adherence to the 



xii NOTE. 

principles of the great leaders we are now indebted 
for many privileges. Though in these sketches 
various trials and troubles have been recorded, it 
may still be objected that they have too much a tone 
of progress and success. In reply I need hardly say 
that I write about men and women, and, of course, 
there were many failures, backslidings and incon- 
sistencies among the people of whom and during the 
period of which I have written. I have to express 
my thanks for many valuable suggestions and much 
information to Earl Nelson, the Eev. J. L. Fish, 
Kector of St. Margaret Pattens ; the Eev. Canon 
Overton, Eector of Epworth ; the Eev. A. Barrington 
Simeon, Eector of Bigbury, Devon ; Miss Skene, of 
Oxford; Frederick Lambert, Esq. of Garratt's Hall, 
Banstead ; and Henry G. Slade, Esq. 

G. WAKELINGk 



RECOLLECTIONS OF THE OXFORD 
MOVEMENT, 

CHAPTEK I. 

DEAN CHURCH'S volume is the story of the first twelve 
years of the movement ; and there we read of the 
chief movers in the revival, the great thinkers and 
writers, the men of learning, energy and perseverance, 
who set themselves the task of showing that the 
" trumpet of the Church of England " did not really 
and truly " give an uncertain sound". He tells us how 
these leading men laboured and preached and wrote, 
in spite of all difficulties and opposition. So excellent 
a record of the source and early work of the movement 
is invaluable.* We have also Mr. Thomas Mozley's 
Reminiscences of Oriel, which relates what is interesting 
and amusing about those early workers, though it does 
not help us much to a knowledge and insight of the 
one great distinctive mark of the movement, the ex- 
tent of its deep religious and devotional aspect. Arch- 

* Sir John Coleridge's Life of Mr. Keble and Mr. Lock's more 
recent life of him add much to our knowledge. 

I 



2 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

deacon Denison, too, records many of the troubles 
and controversies, inseparable from the work, in which 
he was ever valiant and staunch; then we have that 
brilliant addition to our knowledge in the Letters of 
Dr. Newman during his life in the Church of England, 
and the story of James B. Mozley's beautiful life as 
told by his Letters, both of these being admirably 
edited by Anne Mozley, now also called to her rest. 
Then we have another very welcome addition to the 
history in the autobiography of the Eev. Isaac Wil- 
liams, Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford. 
He, although, like Mr. Keble, for the greater part 
of his life a simple country parson, was one of the 
earliest writers in the cause, the author of some of 
the Tracts for the Times, of Sermons and Devo- 
tional Commentaries, and of many exquisite volumes of 
poetry, The Baptistery, The Cathedral, Thoughts in Past 
Years, etc. In this last little volume we learn very 
much that will help us to a true estimate of the work 
of the movement, and we find what it was that made 
John Keble such a wonderful power ; and as we look 
at the splendid pile of buildings in Oxford raised to his 
memory, we no longer marvel that such a memorial 
to a simple country vicar came to be erected. Keble's 
influence on Isaac Williams was very important ; his 
description of it is worth recording : " One so over- 
flowing with real genuine love in thought, word, and 
deed was quite new to me. I had been used to much 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 3 

gentleness and kindness in good society, but this was 
understood to be chiefly on the surface ; but to find a 
person always endeavouring to do one good, as it were, 
unknown to one's self, and in secret, and even avoiding 
that his kindness should be felt and acknowledged as 
such : this opened upon me quite a new world re- 
ligion a reality, and a man wholly made up of love, with 
charms of conversation, thought, and kindness, beyond 
what one had experienced, this broke in upon me all at 
once."* 

The story of the Professorship of Poetry at Oxford is 
an amusing one. All made sure that Isaac Williams 
would succeed Mr. Keble ; but it was not to be, and 
Archdeacon Garbett, who had never written any known 
poetry, was elected. Years after, on the archdeacon's 
death, a leading journal of the day really suggested 
that Isaac Williams' poetry was then not much more 
remembered than Archdeacon Garbett's Prcelediones, 
although edition after edition of Isaac Williams' poems 
were still selling and much valued. Dean Burgon, in 



* Isaac Williams was curate to Dr. Newman at St. Mary's, 
Oxford, and worked with him and Mr. B. H. Froude, in all the 
early publications. He was Newman's intimate friend, officiating 
at the funeral of his mother. Isaac Williams and Newman re- 
tained their affectionate friendship through all the years of change 
and separation. On May 3, 1885, Newman wrote from the Oratory, 
Birmingham, to a friend : " Have you heard of the death of Mr. 
Isaac Williams ? I saw him last week, and never saw a person so 
near death in body, yet apparently so perfectly himself, and with 
such perfect ordinary command of his mind." 



4 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

his Lives of Twelve Good Men, adds to our store of 
knowledge the only published lives of two of the 
most prominent workers in the early days of the 
revival, Hugh James Eose and Charles Marriott. 

From 1825 to 1836, Hugh James Eose, in spite of 
constant ill-health, was a perfect tower of strength, and 
" restorer of the old paths ". Of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, 14th Wrangler, he brought all his brilliant 
talents to help forward the movement. He was curate 
of Buxted, then vicar of Horsham, and vicar of Had- 
leigh, then principal of King's College, London, where 
such famous men as Bishop Selwyn, Bishop Patteson, 
Bishop Abraham, first heard, knew, and valued him. 
As editor of the British Magazine Mr. Eose was known 
far and wide, and in America to such as Bishops 
Hobart, Doane, Whittingharn , etc. He was essen- 
tially a great teacher, just the man to make a stand ; 
and at Hadleigh conferences were held in preparation 
for the literature of the movement, stirring men's 
minds up, reminding them of ancient truths ; the 
future Archbishop of Dublin (Trench) was for some 
time his curate at Hadleigh. In later years Mr. Eose 
was domestic chaplain to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury (Howley) ; his early death was a great loss to the 
movement. He was deeply valued and loved by New- 
man and Pusey ; the former dedicated the first volume 
of his Parochial Sermons to him, and in Mr. Eose's 
illness wrote to assure him that he was ever in his 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 5 

prayers morning and evening. To Dr. Pusey, when 
hearts were failing, and friends deserting, such an one 
as Hugh James Eose would have been a strong help ; 
and we may feel sure his help and advice would have 
cheered Dr. Pusey in his great labours. 

Charles Marriott, the Oxford Fellow, student, and 
scholar, spent his life in Oxford, with the exception 
of a short time as principal of the Chichester Theo- 
logical College, where he succeeded that learned 
divine, Henry Browne. Marriott was ordained priest 
at All Souls, Regent Street, by Bishop Otter, in 1839, 
when Dean Chandler was rector there. He was 
known throughout the University as a man of saintly 
character, great theological learning and classical 
attainments, shy and retiring; yet his labours in the 
work of the movement were very great. Fourteen years 
he spent in translating, collating, correcting, or editing 
twenty-four volumes of the Library of the Fathers. 
In 1850 he succeeded Eden as vicar of St. Mary's, 
Oxford, and his work as a parish priest was well 
known. He never thought of himself or his own 
personal safety, and was fearless and faithful, minister- 
ing up to the last to the cholera and small-pox patients, 
1854, caring afterwards for the children of parents who 
had died. All testify to his singleness of purpose, 
purity of heart and heavenly character, from James B. 
Mozley, to his deacon curate, R. E. Sanderson, of 
Lincoln College, now Canon of Chichester, and long 



6 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Headmaster of Lancing College. Mr. Upton Eichards 
said of him, on leaving his grave, " Blessed are the pure 
in heart ". Charles Marriott was the author of two 
volumes of sermons, and of Hints on Private, Devotion, 
dedicated to the Bishop of Brechin. His library was 
given to Bradfield College. He was a power for good 
in the University; and the Bishop of Lincoln, Dr. King, 
gave the highest testimony to that when he said, " If 
there is any good in me I owe it to Charles Marriott ". 
With such works we can hardly fail to realise in 
some measure the extent and depth of the movement ; 
and we now have the most important addition to our 
store in the Life of Dr. Pusey ; we can hardly over- 
estimate its value and importance ; and, besides, it is 
the work of the last few years of Canon Liddon, who 
gave up all but the duties of St. Paul's Canonry, that he 
might devote himself to the biography of his dearest 
friend. In these volumes we have the life and charac- 
ter of one of the chief workers in the great movement, 
the one certainly who worked longest and hardest. 
His childhood, the care of a good mother, Lady Lucy 
Pusey, his boyhood, his pure college life, his marvel- 
lous industry and careful scholarship, his Fellowship 
of Oriel at twenty-three, his study of languages, his 
Canonry of Christ Church, and Eegius Professorship of 
Hebrew at twenty-eight, his studious habits and ener- 
getic unselfishness, his short married life, and the home 
at Christ Church with his wife arid children, she ever 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 7 

one with him in all his plans and his magnificent 
and self-denying gifts are all detailed ; here we see 
the love and affection of them all for Newman, and 
his love for them ; the work and writings of the 
movement, and Pusey's great share in it all : writing, 
preaching, editing, translating, defending, replying to 
objections and misunderstanding, as a faithful son 
of the Church of England, with one and only one object 
in view to assert and defend the true principles and 
claims of that Church, and this amidst the greatest 
obloquy and misrepresentation ; these volumes clearly 
show that in his loyalty to Christian antiquity he 
was only taking the Church of England at her word. 
Never was a more critical time for the Church than 
that of 1846; in this crisis Dr. Pusey's wonderful 
power was exercised, and by it he rallied round him 
the clergy and laity about many of whom I am 
telling in these sketches. The death of Mrs. Pusey, 
and the drifting apart of Newman and Pusey, are most 
pathetic as was said afterwards, " Newman depended 
on the Bishops, but Pusey looked to God's Providence 
acting through the Church ". 

Lastly, mention must be made of Canon Overton's 
Church of England in the Nineteenth Century, a graphic 
and historical account of all the chief workers in the 
Church before 1833, the leaders who founded the great 
Church societies, and their progress as the forerunners 
of the Tractarian Movement. 



8 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

The men we read of in these works were, no doubt, 
men of very great personal influence, with a wondrous 
power of imparting their deep convictions, and sound 
theological learning ; but this influence, great as it 
was, could only reach a certain number. We do not 
find what a reviewer of Dean Church's book in the 
St. James's Gazette felt to be still wanting, viz., 
" a knowledge of how the Church Movement reached 
the country generally, the gradual trickling of the 
stream through the quiet drowsy villages, washing 
away the dust of a century and a half". But neither 
Dean Church, nor Canon Mozley, nor Thos. Mozley, 
nor Dr. Pusey, nor Canon Liddon could have told all 
this part of the story. My object is to tell some part 
of that story about men and places here and there, 
together with some account of the literature of the 
Tractarian Eevival, the writings of the thinkers and 
workers. A short record of these may help to show 
more clearly how the movement progressed in the coun- 
try generally, in the quiet towns and sleepy villages. 
Even a short account of the literature might form a 
history in itself the tracts, theological works, sermons, 
commentaries, the Jiymns, poetry, stories, allegories, 
magazines and reviews, works on music, art, and archi- 
tecture, books of devotion and instruction, also works 
of controversy to meet the endless objections of oppo- 
nents all this should make a not unattractive story to 
Church people generally. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 9 

One of my earliest recollections as a boy was of a 
conversation in iny father's house in London, about 
1840, between a Londoner of some cultivation and 
a gentleman farmer from Essex. The latter was 
asking of the new sect of Tractarians, then so much 
talked about. " Well," replied the Londoner, " the 
few I know who hold these opinions are among the 
very best people of my acquaintance in life, manners, 
business, and morals." " Ah," replied the farmer, " we 
don't want any of that sort down in Essex ; we don't 
want to be interfered with, but prefer to go on in the 
way we are used to." What that "way" was I had a 
chance of understanding a little later on : dining with 
one of those gentlemen farmers, with six or eight 
guests, the death of one of their neighbours was an- 
nounced ; he had been a friend of the master of the 
house, but the only remark I heard was, " Well, every 
dog has his day " ; one could only conclude that the 
way these gentlemen preferred going was not a very 
elevating or refined one. Those were the times when 
the farmers and labourers clattered out of the fine old 
parish church of Ware, when the vicar (Mr. Codding- 
ton) ascended the pulpit in his surplice. Let us hope 
that there was more ignorance than malice about it ; of 
course, there were some few who stood by the vicar and 
his curate, the first incumbent of Ware Side (the late 
much lamented Dr. Butler, Dean of Lincoln), among 
them the names of John Sworder and Walter Tween 



io RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

may still be remembered. Mr. Butler's Sermons to 
Working Men, published about that time, were dedi- 
cated to Walter Tween, his churchwarden ; these 
sermons were often used and preached by other clergy- 
men. 

The record of Dean Butler's life and work has so 
recently been before us, that I cannot hope to add any- 
thing of moment. He was a most earnest preacher and 
splendid parish priest, with the gift of organising those 
sisterhoods which have been one of the most valued 
fruits of the movement. From Wantage grew that 
most useful body of women who now undertake and 
superintend the work of nursing, rescue, and training, 
bringing help and comfort to the afflicted, sick, and 
fallen, and carrying on works of mercy full of untold 
blessings to thousands of our fellow-creatures. Dean 
Butler was one who never spared himself, and was ever 
ready at the cost of much labour to help with his voice 
and pen, with a fixed, determined, and fearless energy. 
A wonderful testimony to his work is that of the 
clergy, sisters, school teachers, and others who have 
worked under him ; it is most interesting to remember 
his very early labours at that small district of Ware 
Side, Hertfordshire, and to see the extent and influence 
of the work begun at Wantage. 

Not far off, in the county of Essex, one could tell of 
many unmeaning, absurd, and irreverent pieces of cere- 
mony and ritual, kept up from year to year, the inven- 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. n 

tion of some former verger, official, or parish clerk, such 
as the turning round to the organ of the whole congre- 
gation when that instrument began to play. A relative 
of mine was married at one of these churches ; on the 
occasion, as the altar and its covering would have dis- 
graced the vicar's kitchen, he presented a new altar 
cloth ; the enlightened vicar and churchwardens care- 
fully laid it by and put it on when the donor and his 
wife came to visit in the parish. In another corner of 
Essex I remember a vicar who was three parts a 
farmer, and certainly wore in service time what one could 
hardly distinguish from an ordinary smock-frock as the 
only vestment over his usual clothes. The whole 
arrangement and service were of the very worst and 
meanest. It was a seaside parish, and I often went 
out sailing with a hearty, middle-aged fisherman, and 
had a quiet chat with him and his wife. Married life 
was our topic one day, and to my great surprise I found 
that this happy -looking couple had never been married. 
I talked a little about it, and asked if the vicar knew of 
it and ever mentioned it. The reply of the sailor was 
characteristic of the tone of the religion then in the 
county : " Oh, no, sir, our vicar's a most hexellent 
man, and never hinterferes with nobody's business ". 

In the Life of Louisa, Lady Waterford, just pub- 
lished, her sister, Lady Canning, writes from Curragh- 
more, 1844 : " Lou has been reforming the clergyman. 
She gets him and his curate to examine (catechise) the 



12 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

children, and gives him plenty of work about her 
clothing club ; and in church she has by perseverance 
got the whole congregation to stand when the Gospel is 
read and when the Psalms are sung, which was never 
done before." 

But the Church Movement rapidly spread around 
and about, and quickly altered that state of things : it 
brought out a race of honest, earnest parish priests, who 
gave themselves up to the life set forth in the Trac- 
tarian works then being circulated. 

It is called the Movement of 1833 ; but, as a fact, 
there were many pioneers, who, several years before 
that date, were teaching and working on the same 
lines. 

Some mention, too, may be made of still earlier 
religious revivals the Wesleyan, the Evangelical 
Movement, the work of such lovers of souls as Toplady, 
Simeon, Venn, Cornelius Neale and John Mason Good 
(the father and godfather of John Mason Neale, our 
great theologian, historian, liturgiologist, and hymn- 
writer), Wm. Wilberforce, Bickersteth, Leigh Kich- 
mond, Elliott, Pym, Villiers, Marshall, and many 
others. These were the men to whom Dr. Pusey 
refers in that preface to a volume of his sermons, where 
he hints that a better knowledge of such men, and 
more familiar intercourse with them, might show that 
oar differences were not so great or so inevitable. We 
do thankfully acknowledge all that was good and true 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 13 

in those earlier revivals ; it was something to have one 
side of the great truths of our holy religion so earnestly 
and vividly set before us. No one doubts that solid 
good was the result of that early evangelical revival, 
and that many were so led to embrace the whole of the 
Faith as it is presented to us in our Creeds and Prayer 
Book Offices. We see many of these early evangelical 
names in the ranks of the Tractarian Movement. The 
names of Simeon, Wilberforce, Dale, Villiers, and 
Bickersteth, occur to us at once. Here and there, 
no doubt, there was much bitterness and angry denun- 
ciation which has long since passed away, except in the 
records of some so-called Protestant associations. How 
inappropriate to general feeling now would be Mr. 
Doyle's caricature in Punch of " A Christian Gentle- 
man denouncing the Pope " in Exeter Hall ; or the 
address of a noble chairman in that same hall, who 
concluded a violent speech by exhorting his hearers to 
do all in their power to uproot and destroy the Catholic 
Faith " Which except a man believe faithfully he can- 
not be saved " was shouted from the body of the hall. 
Then the speaker explained that that was not what he 
meant ; no doubt, in those days, men did say more 
than they meant in the heat and fervour of polemical 
debate. It may safely be affirmed that the attacks for 
the most part were made by our opponents ; High 
Church folk were not often given to seek notoriety, or 
to attack on their part. 



i 4 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

The story of one famous exception is worth telling, 
and perhaps it was one of the most severe that occurred. 
A certain popular dissenting preacher and D.D. in the 
East of London had written a book called " Lectures on 
Puseyism," and, either with or without permission, had 
dedicated it to H.RH. Prince Albert. The author was 
also the proprietor and editor of two religious news- 
papers, in both of which, for some time after publica- 
tion, appeared a great many laudatory notices of this 
book. A week or so after these nattering reviews, 
there appeared in one of these papers a letter, in large 
type and good position, addressed to the editor, sug- 
gesting how exceedingly useful these " Lectures on 
Puseyism " were, and venturing to inquire if the royal 
person to whom the book was dedicated had taken any 
notice of the work, and how valuable his opinion would 
be ; how it would render the work more popular, and 
recommend it to the youth of the country. The letter 
ended with a desire that some steps should be taken to 
obtain His Eoyal Highness's opinion. The letter was 
signed by a clergyman's name, and dated from a vicarage 
in Brighton. Next week a second letter appeared, 
urging still more the great importance of obtaining 
Prince Albert's opinion on the lectures, and advising 
a humble address to the Queen, that Her Majesty would 
be pleased to lay her royal command, as it were, on the 
Prince Consort that he should give his opinion of this 
valuable book. This second letter was signed by the 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 15 

same clergyman from the same vicarage. Next week 
a third letter appeared in continuation of the subject, 
giving a form of petition to be addressed to Her 
Majesty, with the object that she should request Prince 
Albert to give his written opinion of this important 
work, and proposing that some chief members of the 
nobility, etc., should be asked to start the petition with 
their signatures. Here followed the names of ten or 
twelve lords, ladies, baronets, etc. This letter was signed 
by the same clergyman from the same vicarage. A few 
days afterwards an article appeared in a well-known 
weekly review showing that the whole thing was a joke. 
The letters were readily taken and printed by the 
reverend editor, who was thought to have been praising 
his own book in his own newspapers. No such clergy- 
man as the one who signed the letters existed, there 
was no such vicarage as that whence the letters were 
dated, and of all the noble names suggested not one 
was then living. 

With many controversialists in those days it was 
the custom to date all religion from the Eeformation, 
oblivious of the fact that they were thereby playing 
into the hands of Home more surely than all the ritual 
and ceremony that was ever practised. Even in a 
recent Privy Council trial the counsel for the Church 
Association actually suggested that the present Church 
of England had no connection as to canons, councils, 
documents, ritual or rubrics, with the Church before 



16 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

the Eeformation. Such a statement might well, as it 
did, astonish even the Lord Chancellor; and next day, 
as a sort of apology, a " legal continuity " was acknow- 
ledged. It was a curious anachronism that such an 
opinion should have been uttered before a court that 
was discussing the judgment of the 95th Archbishop 
of Canterbury ! 

But to return to the earlier days. Many years be- 
fore 1833 there were men of piety, learning, and 
renown, teaching and preaching on the same lines 
as the Tractarian Movement, who were in some true 
sense pioneers. I can only mention a few of these, 
such as Bishop Jebb (who was buried in the tomb 
of the Thorntons at Clapham) : Alex. Knox ; Bishops 
Van Mildert and Jolly ; Patrick Cheyne ; Mr. Slade 
(who wrote a commentary on the Psalms) ; Arch- 
deacon E. W. Evans, of Heversham, author of the 
Rectory of Valehead, and many other works, two espe- 
cially, the Bishopric of Souls, and the Ministry of the 
Body, most useful to the clergy, and like in value 
to Prebendary Sadler's Church Doctrine, etc. ; C. E. 
Kennaway, author of Consolatio ; H. H. Norris, rector 
of South Hackney, who had an important controversy 
with the British and Foreign Bible Society ; Dr. Mill, 
first Principal of Bishop's College, Calcutta, Eegius 
Professor of Hebrew at Cambridge, author of many 
learned lectures, sermons, etc., a name to be remem- 
bered in the very foremost rank of Anglican divines ; 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 17 

he afterwards took the living of Brasted, near Seven- 
oaks, in Kent, leading the life of an active parish 
priest to the last. His Catechetical Lectures were 
published after his death by his son-in-law, the Eev. 
Benjamin Webb, one of the well-known Cambridge 
men of the movement, a coadjutor with John Mason 
Neale, especially in art and ecclesiology, for many 
years vicar of St. Andrew's, Wells Street, the church 
built for Mr. T. M. Fallow, curate to Dean Chandler, 
Eector of All Souls, Langham Place, but he died soon 
after it was consecrated. Mr. Fallow's son also T. 
M. Fallow born after his father's death, was in holy 
orders. Mr. Fallow, of St. Andrew's, was on the com- 
mittee of the Motett Society, before its connection with 
the Ecclesiological Society. In Mr. Norris's parish of 
Hackney, too, lived many earnest laymen, working up 
towards higher things, among them Joshua Watson, 
Governor of the Bank of England, to whom Dr. New- 
man dedicated a volume of his Parochial Sermons, and 
whose life, written by Archdeacon Churton, is full of 
interest, especially in the account of the foundation of 
the great Church Societies; and in the early part of Dr. 
Pusey's life there are interesting mentions of his visiting 
Mr. Joshua Watson at Brighton. 

One of the most remarkable of these pioneers was of 
earlier date still the Kev. John Oxlee, rector of Scaw- 
ton, and curate of Stonegrave, Yorkshire, who in 1819 
and 1821 preached and published three sermons. The 



i8 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

first was preached in Thirsk Church, at the visitation 
of the tlight Worshipful Charles Baillie, from St. John 
xx. 23, " in which," as the title-page tells us, " it 
is demonstrated, in the broadest and most fundamental 
principles of the Christian faith, that the full power of 
remitting or retaining sins, and of dispensing absolu- 
tion, is an essential prerogative of the Christian priest- 
hood ". The second sermon was thus entitled : " In 
which it is unanswerably proved to all believers in 
Divine revelation, that the Christian priesthood is a 
perfect hierarchy, emanating from God Himself, and 
that in this realm the only real and efficient Christian 
ministers are those of the Church of England ". The 
third sermon is on the Christian ministry; and the 
regular episcopal succession is deduced by a continued 
and uninterrupted list of Christian bishops, from the 
blessed Apostles Peter, Paul, and John, down to the 
present prelates of Canterbury, York, and London. All 
three sermons had extensive notes and extracts from 
the early Fathers of the Church and from English 
divines ; but the last had a valuable appendix, with 
tables of the first bishops of the Churches of Jeru- 
salem, Antioch, Alexandria, Eome, Clermont, Tours, 
Autun, Vienne, Aries, and Lyons ; a list of the Arch- 
bishops of Canterbury, from St. Augustine to the 
present time ; of York, from Paulinus to the present 
time ; of London, from AJD. 604 to the present time ; 
and the series of Kornan Pontiffs, from 336 to 1294. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 19 

This Yorkshire author and divine wrote several other 
learned works ; one on the doctrine of the Holy 
Trinity, a most telling reply to the Unitarians, in a 
letter to Mr. Wellbeloved, a Unitarian minister of 
York. He was known to such men as Bishops Middle- 
ton, Heber, Kaye, Thirlwall, and others, as one of the 
most profound and learned scholars of the day in Latin, 
Greek, Hebrew, Chaldee, and Syriac. It is recorded 
that the venerable and learned President of Magdalen 
(Routh), in 1852, had only just seen Mr. Oxlee's ser- 
mons, and wrote to express his satisfaction. It would 
be a curious inquiry to ask what effect these sermons 
had on the fifty or sixty rough Yorkshire parsons of 
that day, probably somewhat after the type of old 
Bronte, the father of Charlotte Bronte* : one can imagine 
their look of intense astonishment as they sat in the 
tine old church of Thirsk and listened to such a 
passage as this : 

From the foregoing statements it will manifestly appear that 
the present subsisting hierarchy of the Church of England derived 
its episcopal power and authority, originally and immediately, not 
from the Romish Pontiffs, but from the Gallican Metropolitans ; 
and this, by the way, is always a sufficient answer to the vulgar 
prejudice and ignorant clamour of the English Dissenters, who con- 
tend that if the Church of England will boast of her episcopal 
succession, she must be content to have it derived from the corrupt 
and contaminated fountain of the Romish Church, as though, 
indeed, it were a crime and a sin to have obtained episcopal power 
from that see, which, as all antiquity might be cited to testify, 
derived it from the Apostles themselves, etc., etc. 

It is not at all certain that they took Mr. Oxlee 



20 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

seriously ; it is hardly to be wondered at if it were 
so, when we remember that the cruel sport of bear- 
baiting was carried on not very many years before ; and 
the story is told that the parish clerk of a church in a 
neighbouring county, in a whisper, said to the clergy- 
man between the prayers, " the bear has arrived, and 
is a very fine one". These Yorkshire parsons dined 
as usual with the Chancellor ; and it is said that after 
dinner a whisper went round the table that the next 
vacant cardinal's hat was to be bestowed on the 
preacher. The sermons were published with the names 
of Hatchard and Eivington for a firm at York, and 
some forty years after the remainder were unearthed 
from Messrs. Hatchard's cellar, and met with a ready 
sale. 

Let us also pay a passing tribute to the popular 
preachers of 1840 and onwards, whose churches were 
crowded and their sermons listened to with atten- 
tion, such men as Montague Villiers, Sanderson Eobins, 
Canon Dale, Daniel Moore, and Henry Melvill ; to my 
knowledge such earnest and vigorous preaching was of 
the greatest benefit to the young men of London, and 
when the Church Movement came into their lives there 
was little to unlearn ; the addition of some important 
truths, and the outward expression of the same, natur- 
ally followed. I think we took more trouble in re- 
ligious matters than young folks do in these days of 
trams, underground trains, and omnibuses for every 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 21 

tew hundred yards. As youths we thought nothing 
of walking on Sunday evenings from our home in 
Soho to Camden Chapel, Camberwell, standing through- 
out the service and sermon, and walking home. Those 
forty minutes' sermons, delivered with all the power and 
energy of Mr. MelvilPs prime, were something to 
remember. Mr. Melvill, afterwards Rector of Barnes, 
and Canon of St. Paul's, who was a good churchman, 
edited Sherlock on Public Worship for Mr. Burns's 
Englishman's Library, one of the many series that were 
brought out in the movement. I cannot say much for 
the ritual of Camden Chapel in those days, but there 
was good Church teaching in those popular sermons ; 
one especially, on November 5, was a warning to the 
over-zealous in reform, that, in removing, as they 
thought, some corrupt additions, great care was needed, 
some vital truth being always at the bottom ; and that 
by cutting too deeply the truth itself might be damaged 
or lost. Just as Dr. Pusey felt it of moment to distin- 
guish what the Articles really condemned as Romish ; 
lest we involved therewith feelings and doctrines and 
practices which were primitive. Though most of the 
popular extempore preachers were Evangelicals, many 
of them were better Churchmen at heart than we should 
suppose. Canon Dale, at St. Bride's, and evening 
preacher at St. Sepulchre's, Snow Hill, afterwards at 
St. Pancras, and Dean of Rochester, was a most earnest, 
excellent preacher. St. Sepulchre's was always filled, 



22 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

and with a large proportion of young men ; and the 
Church principles of some of his children and grand- 
children testify to his orthodox and energetic life. Some 
may remember the rector's large square pew at the end 
of the north aisle, where the preacher's young family 
all appeared ; and bright, clever, intelligent young 
faces they were. Eobert Montgomery, who came from 
St. Jude's, Glasgow, was one of the most popular of 
that day ; his chapel, Percy Chapel, Charlotte Street, 
Fitzroy Square (now taken down), was certainly most 
uncomfortably crowded ; but, much as Macaulay de- 
spised his poetry, he was well worth hearing : it is 
really a fact that once upon a time he wrote for the 
Ecclesiastic, a most pronounced Tractarian monthly ; and 
his volume of poems, called the Christian Life, on the 
plan of the Christian Year, contained much that was 
sweet and instructive. One of his volumes of 
poetry was called Satan, and from that he was at 
times called "Satan Montgomery". It is said that, 
calling one day on a High Church publisher, he entered 
the office in his usual loud manner. " My name is 
Montgomery. You know me ? " The publisher got up 
from his seat rather startled, and said, "Oh, yes, 
Satan ". These overcrowded churches were rather try- 
ing to old-fashioned folks. An orthodox churchman, 
a friend of mine, who always thought it his duty to hear 
both sides, managed to get into Percy Chapel to hear 
Eobert Montgomery. Coming out on the crowded 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 23 

staircase an old woman asked him if he did not think 
it was beautiful. " Very well for once, my good 
woman ; very well for once." " For once, sir ! " she 
exclaimed in dismay. This same old churchman was 
a regular communicant at his parish church of St. 
Martin-in-the-Fields, though in Sir Henry Dukinfield's 
time Church privileges were not abundant. He was a 
vestryman, and now and then put in a few words that 
showed his churchmanship e.g., he once proposed that 
a parochial dinner given in the middle of summer 
should be held at a much more salubrious and ap- 
propriate time, such as November 11, the day of the 
patron saint of their church. I fear that very few of 
the vestrymen knew that there was such a day as St. 
Martin's Day in the Calendar. 

The most popular preachers in the early days were 
not all Low Churchmen. Archdeacon Manning was 
very popular, and the churches crowded whenever he 
preached in town. His bright presence, refined features, 
and winning manner were most attractive ; and his ser- 
mons then seemed more telling than his later addresses 
in the Romish Church. I remember the practical 
results of one at St. Margaret's, Westminster, for West- 
minster Hospital. A friend was there, and the first 
thing he said to his wife on returning home was, "My 
dear, we have two or three spare beds and bedding in 
the loft; we must send them down to Westminster 
Hospital Archdeacon Manning said so". These single 



24 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

sermons of the archdeacon's were frequently published, 
and many a time I have bought one and enjoyed 
reading it after having heard it. A curious coincidence 
occurred with one of them preached for the Magdalen 
Hospital, from the text, " Now there stood by the cross 
of Jesus," etc. A few weeks after it had been pub- 
lished, I happened to have the sermon in my pocket 
when I went to church, and sat, as usual, with my Sun- 
day-school boys under the organ at the west end. The 
curate, a young deacon, nephew of a bishop, was 
preaching for a Penitentiary, and gave out the same 
text ; it sounded familiar, and I drew the printed ser- 
nioii out of my pocket, and read it after the preacher, 
who delivered it word for word, without a sound of 
acknowledgment ; he was very young, and so his rather 
conceited action may be forgiven. Mr. Purchas, of 
Brighton, at times read Bishop Hall's Contemplations, 
but he always told his people what he was reading. 

Dr. Hook was much appreciated as a preacher in 
London; and I need not say that when Dr. Pusey 
preached in town, the churches were filled with devout 
hearers. For some years he preached at St. Mary 
Magdalen's, Munster Square, on Ascension Day; and 
many well-known men were in the church Eobert and 
Samuel Wilberforce, and Father Ignatius, then a young 
deacon. On the evening of the consecration, F. D. 
Maurice preached, and Mark Pattison was in the 
church. When Pusey preached at the consecration of 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 25 

St. Barnabas, Pimlico, there were a great many more 
people outside the church than in ; and on the occasion 
of his preaching at St. Peter's Chapel, Pimlico (during 
Thomas Norton Harper's short incumbency), it was full, 
even up the pulpit steps. He preached in his academi- 
cal gown ; and the story runs that on his way back to 
the vestry, an old woman said, " Ah, sir, if we only 
had more sermons like that, there would be no * Pusey- 
ism ' in our churches ". 

He preached several times in old Margaret Chapel, 
when, of course, the little chapel was more than full. 
He preached there at Evensong on St. Peter's Day, the 
night before Mr. Oakeley was condemned in the Old 
Arches Court. On one special occasion he preached 
there the sermon, " Do all to the Lord Jesus " : it was 
published, and many thousands were sold. On this 
occasion, I think, some of us were told by the verger 
that the lower part of the chapel was full, and that we 
must go upstairs into the gallery. Dr. Pusey's young 
daughter was there, and told the verger that she was 
sure her papa would not like her to take so high or 
exalted a place in the chapel. 

Dr. A. B. Evans was for many years evening 
preacher at St. Andrew's, Wells Street, coming in from 
Enfield, where he was curate to Mr. Heath. The 
church was always filled, and no one who heard his 
sharp and telling sermons, with a great deal of wit and 
occasional sarcasm somewhat after the style of South's 



26 RECOLLECTIONS OF OXFORD MOVEMENT. 

famous discourses could dispute his ability in his own 
special line. I have now a letter from a clergyman 
well able to judge, in which he says, "Dr. Evans gave 
us the grandest sermon on Thursday, June 13, at St. 
Peter's, Yauxhall, on ' Your reasonable service,' that I 
have ever heard preached ; it was perfectly marvellous ". 
He was thoroughly original, and some years after had 
the vicarage of St. Mary-le-Strand, where he earned 
the respect and affection of very many friends. When 
he was at Wells Street, a curious story is told. Some 
friends were anxious to publish a volume or two of his 
sermons, and it was proposed to raise a small sum to 
defray the cost of printing. Mr. Masters was to be 
the publisher. A rich, crotchety churchman was asked 
to help. " I know you'll go putting ' S.' for ' Saint' in- 
stead of ' St.,' and all that sort of thing." "Ah, well," 
said the friend, " if you will help I will undertake that 
' St.' shall be put for ' Saint ' throughout." " In that 
case," replied the gentleman, " I will give ten pounds ; 
but I don't like the way he does his hair those two little 
curls on each side I think in very bad taste." " Well," 
replied Dr. Evans's friend, smiling, " if you will give 
another ten pounds, I don't mind asking him to cut off 
those curls." Two volumes of sermons were printed 
and were valued. I think they have been out of print 
for some years. " St." for " Saint " was printed through- 
out, though many would have it that " St." stood for 
"Street". 



CHAPTER II. 

IN looking back on those early London days, nothing 
seems more wonderful than the rapid way in which the 
Tractarian Movement changed the whole tone of things 
in religious matters : within ten years of the beginning 
a vast number of the London churches showed many 
signs of its influence. It was like a call that was sure 
to touch all that was earnest and real in people's 
hearts ; it, in fact, said to them : " Here is your own 
old Church, no new Church, the old foundations well 
laid, with its Prayer-book, preface, calendar, offices, 
creeds, sacraments, ordinal, its fasts and vigils, saints' 
and holy days ; this is what it is in theory : but what 
a different thing now in practice!" This stirred the 
hearts of thousands ; it urged them to be consistent, to 
carry into practice the Church system read}' to their 
hands : it was the old Church of their country, its 
historical and constitutional claims were worth con- 
tending for. And so it came to pass that very early in 
the movement busy merchants and others found time 
to go to early service and celebrations, especially on 
holy days and festivals, making a point at such times 
of returning in time for evensong. Of course, irnprove- 

(27) 



28 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

ments in the services were gradual, and in many cases 
only the week-day and saints' day services were more 
brightly and carefully rendered, leaving the Sunday 
services just as they were, until in due time the men 
of the place were led to ask why the beautiful ser- 
vices were given to their wives and daughters in the 
week-day, and not to themselves on Sundays. 

Thus within a few years most marked changes took 
place in hundreds of churches in London and all over 
the country ; in Scotland and even in Ireland, America 
and the West Indies, there was much change in the 
arrangement, order, and ornaments of the churches and 
services ; new churches of great beauty and grandeur 
were built ; and even in the old-fashioned churches of 
London much was done to give a more seemly and 
reverent order of things. Old things, old neglects and 
abuses were to be no more ; the days were fast passing 
away when an old country rector, without the least 
conscious profanity, at the monthly celebration would 
consecrate nearly half a loaf, giving it at the end of the 
service to the poorer communicants who flocked to the 
altar rails, but without kneeling or outward sign of 
reverence ; and again, which is even worse, when 
another rector would leave the remainder of the con- 
secrated elements to be removed or dealt with by the 
female pew-opener ; happily, a new curate insisted on 
undertaking that office, and threatened to leave at once 
if the rector continued the old miserable way : or when 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 29 

a young lad's preparation for Confirmation was one 
visit to the old rector in his dining-room, who shook 
hands, and said he knew how well and carefully his 
father and mother had brought him up, and so he had 
much pleasure in giving him his ticket ; and that was 
all. A friend's experience in that way was singular. 
He was at school in Eaton Square ; among his school- 
fellows were sons of Mr. Bennett and Mr. Fuller (the 
incumbents of St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, and St. Peter's, 
Eaton Square). One day the headmaster asked him if he 
wished to be confirmed, and he said "Yes" ; the master 
asked him to say the Apostles' Creed, and gave him his 
ticket. The master then turned to another boy, saying, 

" M , you ought to be confirmed, you are big 

enough ". The boy was offended, and living just 
opposite, went across to St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, and 
stood up in the church to be catechised. Years after- 
wards we visited his grave at Preston, near Brighton, a 
soldier's sword at the foot of a cross. The Confirma- 
tion itself, in St. James's, Piccadilly, by Bishop Blom- 
field, was not a very impressive or solemn ceremonial. 
Compared with some Confirmations of a later time 
in many London churches, or with those by Bishop 
Hamilton of Salisbury, Harvey of Exeter, Bishop 
Forbes of Brechin, or by the Bishop of Chichester 
in St. Paul's, Brighton, it was cold and formal indeed. 

But even in such a parish as St. Anne, Soho, with 
surroundings and arrangements of the very plainest 



3 o RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

fashion, the Church Movement was felt and bore fruit. 
In those days the parish had not been invaded by 
foreigners. The fine old houses in Dean Street, Car- 
lisle Street, Gerrard Street, and Soho Square, with their 
historical arid literary record, their handsome entrance 
halls, ornamented ceilings, and carved staircases, had 
not yet been turned into shops, restaurants and ware- 
houses. The church was fairly full of parishioners, 
and all parochial work was well looked after. There 
were two thorough- working curates one a Cambridge 
man, a friend of Bishop Selwyn, to whom Sir Edward 
Kerrison gave a living in Suffolk (his son is now rector 
of a large Midland parish and rural dean). The other 
curate was an Oxford man, a very excellent scholar 
and parish priest, and thoroughly in touch with the 
Tractarian Movement; and -from .him, in spite of sur- 
roundings, came the knowledge of the higher life to 
very many ; such books as Mr. Gresley's and Mr. F. E. 
Paget's, with smaller tracts and manuals, came upon us 
as a revelation. A book like Bernard Leslie, giving the 
portrait of a country curate, and how he gradually 
swept away the dust of ages of neglect and indifference, 
set the sympathies to work, and all longed to take their 
part in the revival. 

Litany on Wednesday and Friday was, I think, all 
the week-day service at St. Anne's, with one monthly 
late celebration ; but the Oxford curate and some of 
the younger folks were at the daily five o'clock even- 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 31 

song at Margaret Chapel, then recently taken by Mr. 
Oakeley, and at the early celebrations too ; part of the 
story of that very ordinary-looking chapel I will try to 
tell later on. 

Still, at St. Anne's the higher teaching fell on some 
good ground ; with a few of the older people the bow 
at the Gloria had not been forgotten, and the week 
before Holy Communion was a real time of prepara- 
tion ; many used the old week's preparation, and the 
old Whole Duty of Man (not the editions with some 
of the Church teaching cut out), Bishop Wilson's 
Sacra Privata and Lord's Supper, and Robert Nelson's 
Fasts and Festivals. The large charity schools were in 
Rose Street, Soho ; the girls and boys, in the old 
picturesque dresses, had a gallery to themselves in 
church on each side of the great organ at the west end. 
The organ was a grand old instrument, with three rows 
of keys and great pedal pipes, most ably played for 
years as a labour of love by the young daughter of a 
parishioner who was devoted to sacred music and the 
care and good order of the instrument. The children 
were carefully trained, and sang admirably. Many of 
these boys in after life turned out well ; the two senior 
boys especially, who used to sing the duet and solo 
parts in the Collect Anthem, " Lord of all power and 
might," for the seventh Sunday after Trinity ; they be- 
came national schoolmasters ; from charity boys they 
were Sunday-school boys, and then Sunday-school 



32 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

teachers ; they were born of very humble parents in St. 
Anne's Court, Dean Street ; but in spite of that, were, in 
many ways, really gentlemen in heart and feeling. There 
are but few now left who would remember " the two 
Lynches," as they were called. The church was a 
large and handsome building of its kind, with a circu- 
lar chancel apse, ornamented ceiling, and many in- 
teresting monuments, one to a King of Corsica, 1756 ; 
to David Williams, founder of the Literary Fund ; to 
"William Hamilton, E.A. ; and one that especially in- 
terested us in young days, to a Bishop of St. David's, 
with crozier and mitre. The lower part of the chancel, 
under a very stiff, gaudy window, was laid out in panels 
with circular tops, containing the Lord's Prayer, the 
Ten Commandments, and two full-length paintings of 
Moses and Aaron. But for the three-decker and the 
high oak pews it really would have had a grand ap- 
pearance : now the old pews are lowered, the organ is 
moved down and turned into two huge erections on 
each side, making a sort of quasi-chancel. The three- 
decker was a peculiar one, the steps to the pulpit or 
upper erection forming a sort of arch under which you 
could walk. The service was not much to describe 
the clergy proceeded from the vestry at the far end, 
headed by one beadle in green and gold, and as they 
left the vestry another beadle opened the door to the 
middle division, or prayer-desk, which drew out with 
steps attached, and you could hear the click with which 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 33 

it caught when fully open ; and then, when the reader 
had safely gone up the steps, it was closed with a 
similar catch rather an awkward imprisonment if 
the reader were taken ill, which occurred once. The 
preacher in surplice, hood, etc., went into the chancel 
apse, whence he was solemnly conducted down the 
church in due time by the beadle to don his black 
gown. The amen-clerk was an important person, but 
he came last and let himself into his lower desk ; in 
appearance, though not in height, he was a regular 
Falstaff, and evidently had an opinion of his own 
dignity ; by profession he was a clever and intelligent 
engraver, but he was sorely puzzled at the increase of 
reverence and solemnity that was then taking place. 
He gave vent to his feelings at times in the week-days 
on the occasion of a baptism or christening by the 
Oxford curate, or by the rector's son, Charles Middle- 
ton MacLeod, when on a visit. He confessed " that he 
could not make it out ; the latter person, he thought, 
was actually frightened to touch the book, the font, the 
communion-table, or anything in the church ". It 
would be difficult to detail the improvement, though it 
was gradually evident in many matters of personal 
reverence, kneeling, etc.; and in those days kneeling 
was anything but easy. Some classes of the Sunday- 
school were placed at the chancel steps and used to 
face the congregation ; now they were turned the other 
way, which \v;',s much more decent and orderly. The 

3 



34 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

master of the charity schools was a character : he was 
an elderly man of great learning and acquirements, and 
had clearly come down in the world ; a good Greek, 
Latin, and Hebrew scholar, and a mathematician too, 
was hardly needed for such a post ; he was ready to 
impart his knowledge of languages, etc., and would play 
two games of chess with us at once without seeing 
either board or men, and win them. Talking of charity 
schools reminds me that many of the old foundation 
deeds were written and expressed in most orthodox and 
religious terms, beginning in the name of the Holy 
Trinity, etc. ; the sick and poor were well visited and 
assisted ; nor does one easily forget the first occasion of 
joining in the Communion of the Sick with the Oxford 
curate : it was in one of the smaller houses in Gerrard 
Street, where, on the second floor, a young girl in the 
last stage of consumption lay dying. As we were let in 
at the street-door his clear " Peace be to this house and 
to all that dwell therein " was most impressive. All 
was nicely arranged for the service by him on a small 
table near the bed, and in cassock, surplice, and stole 
it was quietly and reverently done ; the solemn peace of 
it all was something to remember, and showed most of 
all in the calm, pale face of the poor girl. On one such 
occasion a gentleman of that parish, finding the people 
had no small suitable table, carried one from his own 
home a mile and a half through the streets of London. 
The Sunday-schools of this parish were very large and 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 35 

admirably managed by the rector's daughter and niece 
and other excellent workers, and among the men were 
Edward Thornton whose loss from among us we have 
just been deploring Theodore Galton, Mr. Edison a 
barrister, etc. Many of the new hymn-books and 
catechisms just then published were used ; and it was 
a great charm to the pupils to have some small cate- 
chisms, such as lessons on the Prayer-book, calendar, 
etc., with their own names printed to the answers : 
these were, of course, written and published by the 
Oxford curate. The best also was done to solve the 
problem how to attach and retain Sunday scholars to 
the Church. One plan we found of great service : two 
or three of the teachers had an evening school from 
seven to nine twice in the week, teaching writing 
and arithmetic ; it was made a sort of reward for the 
best conducted Sunday scholars, and for those out- 
growing the school. The curates were constantly in 
this evening school ; and always, at a quarter to nine, 
there was short evensong or compline, and in this ser- 
vice the seasons, saints' days, eves and vigils, were 
carefully commemorated, and the calendar of the 
Church's year made more of a reality. 

Another plan for keeping up the interest of the 
Sunday scholars was to take them about to the service 
in churches where things were advancing. Many a 
pleasant walk and talk, as Mr. Paget says, were thus en- 
joyed. Sometimes to Westminster Abbey, or St. Mark's 



36 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

College, Chelsea, when Derwent Coleridge was Principal, 
and Mr. Helmore was then beginning his life's work 
and devotion to the music of the Church ; it was 
a splendid choral service without accompaniment ; to 
Christ Church, Broadway, Westminster, Mr. Cyril 
Page's ; Christ Church, Albany Street, Mr. Dodsworth's ; 
Christ Church, Hoxton, where Mr. Scott was working 
well and thoroughly : though he was better known as 
a theological and critical writer, and editor of the 
Christian Remembrancer ; Mr. Milman, Eector of St. 
Augustine's, City, was once curate to Mr. Scott. 
Smaller works and tracts were often written by him, 
and most useful they were. Plain Words to Plain 
People was the title of some excellent ones. 

In these ways hold was kept on the scholars, and 
they were helped to start in life. In one class, two 
became national schoolmasters, two working jewellers, 
one a clever upholsterer, one a clergyman now rector 
of a parish in Norfolk two brothers were solicitors' 
and barristers' clerks. Not very long ago I much 
astonished a young friend by telling her I had met two 
Sunday scholars, and had invited them to spend the 
evening ; her idea of Sunday scholars was her own little 

tribe of mites at St. ; so what was her surprise to 

see two tall men, with long beards, walk in ! They 
joined in our games, and quite entered into them, 
and played chess, etc., with the best of us. They 
were the two brothers last mentioned then getting. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 37 

on in years ; they both remain single, to give a 
good home to their crippled and invalid sisters. The 
Sunday-school teachers were part of the staff of 
district visitors ; and as the parish contained one side of 
Wardour Street and Crown Street, Newport Court and 
Market, and part of Seven Dials, with the numerous 
courts in them, there was abundance of work. The 
sick scholars of the schools were always carefully 
visited in their homes and in the hospitals. 

The influence of the movement in these early days 
was shown chiefly in the preaching, and in smaller 
matters of reverence ; as, for instance, where the double 
cushions were retained on the altar, there was no loung- 
ing on them, and the assistant priest generally knelt at 
some distance, facing east ; but there was nothing of what 
we call Eitual. Mr. Eodwell, evening preacher at St. 
Mark's, Myddelton Square, in delicate health, sat dur- 
ing the Psalms, but always stood up at the Glorias, in 
the great three-decker that then hid altar, railings, etc., 
in that church. Our immediate neighbours St. 
James's, Piccadilly, and St. Giles-in-the-Fields showed 
many signs of this influence. Mr. Ward, afterwards 
Dean of Lincoln, was Eector of St. James's, where they 
had early weekly celebrations : Mr. E. H. Thompson 
one of the first married converts to Rome, was curate ; 
the late Dean Oakley was also curate there. Archbishop 
Tenison's Chapel, called after the first Rector of St. 
James's, was in this parish ; and there for many years 



38 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Mr. Gay (afterwards Eector of St. Matthew's, Ipswich) 
carried on the work single-handed, would ring his own 
bell, and say his daily matins at nine from his three- 
decker, not at all depending on a congregation, though 
there was generally a very small one. He was a 
thorough working parish priest. He married a daughter 
of Henry Howard, E. A., the renowned figure-painter, 
who was a regular attendant at St. Anne's, Soho. One 
of Mr. Howard's sons, Edward Irving Howard, took a 
good degree at Lincoln- College, Oxford, and went out to 
India as a barrister; it was very sad that early in his 
career he was killed in a railway accident, the train 
breaking apart. His name reminds us that it is not 
always a success to call children after the names of 
favourite divines, writers, or painters, at least with the 
hope that the child will in after years follow in the steps 
and views of his supposed patron or namesake. John 
Mason Neale was an instance of how things may take an 
almost opposite direction. In some cases (not imaginary 
ones) it seemed almost disastrous ; what could be more 
distressing than to christen your son Martin Luther, 
and in after years see him received into the Church of 
Eome ? or for a talented artist to call his son Michael 
Angel o, and that years hence he should become a very 
indifferent artist, and end his days as a photographer ? 
It is not every Arthur or Horatio who turns out a brave 
man, nor every George Herbert who becomes a saintly 
and religious person. We are talking of exceptions; but, 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 39 

of course, one could fill pages with the successful 
instances, such as Copley Vandyke Fielding, etc. 

From this time to its transformation into St. 
Thomas's, Eegent Street (which is still a centre of 
Church work and teaching), sacrificing its valuable 
porch and entrance in that busy thoroughfare, Arch- 
bishop Tenison's Chapel had a good record of incum- 
bents ; among them Haselwood (first Vicar of St. 
Mark's, Hamilton Terrace), J. H. Thomas (sometime 
Archdeacon of Cape Town), Cowan (afterwards Vicar of 
St. John's, Hammersmith, where Hugh Monro was his 
curate) ; Mr. Burrows, of Christ Church, Albany Street, 
afterwards Canon of Eochester. W. H. Brookfield was 
there, and then for many years Vicar of St. Luke's, 
Berwick Street, a brilliant scholar and preacher, fear- 
fully out of place in a parish that was nearly all like 
the Seven Dials and the New Cut. Many will remem- 
ber his finely-chiselled features and graceful manner, 
and all know the very beautiful memoriam poem to him 
by Tennyson. 

Many of these neighbours were often at St. Anne's. 
Those were the days of afternoon and evening lecture- 
ships and readerships. Among these were T. T. Haver- 
field, incumbent of York Chapel, St. James's ; William 
Harness, the Shakespearian scholar ; and Edward Dai- 
ton, afterwards Eector of Lambeth and Vicar of High- 
gate. Dean (then Mr.) Gregory was Incumbent of St. 
Mary-the-Less, Lambeth, a very populous and poor 



4 o RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

district, where he worked hard for years, and in 1859 
had a mission-room near Vauxhall Gardens. 

The other close neighbour was St. Giles-in-the- 
Fields, where things were also working up. James 
Endell Tyler, a Fellow of Oriel, the friend of Whately, 
Jelf, Newman, Coplestone, etc., had been appointed 
vicar by Lord Liverpool. His fine face and figure were 
to be seen constantly about his parish, which was 
thoroughly well worked with careful and reverent 
services ; in church he wore bands of a different 
make to those usually seen then ; instead of two narrow 
strips of muslin, they were large and in one piece, 
falling down flat like those we see in old prints of the 
Caroline Divines, and of Bossuet and Fenelon. He 
had some excellent men as curates ; among them Mr. 
Watts, who had Bedford Chapel, and Mr. Swain, first 
Vicar of Christ Church, Endell Street (built by the 
well-known Church architect, Mr. Benjamin Ferrey), 
a street running from Holboru to the Covent Garden 
district, which was called after Mr. Tyler's second 
Christian name. The work and influence of the 
Church Movement among the masses was undoubtedly 
set forward by hundreds of clergymen in town and 
country, such as Mr. Swain, of Endell Street. There 
he laboured all his life, a life of rare self-denial and 
work, had daily service and early communions, was 
always to be found in his church or parish or in the 
workhouse, where he ministered ; this workhouse sur- 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 41 

rounded the church, and the galleries were reserved 
for those of its inmates who could come what ups and 
downs of life he must have seen and known, and what 
a parish it was and is ! Scarcely a parishioner above 
the lower middle class ! It was a testimony to the 
work here as well as at St. Anne's that the parents of 
the lower middle class, and down to the very poor, 
though they themselves did not often fall in with the 
" new-fangled and Puseyite ways," were yet bound to 
say that their children who were under the new in- 
fluence, were all the better sons and daughters for it ; 
were all the more obedient, attentive, loving, indus- 
trious, careful, well-spoken, and thoughtful for others. 

Before we go further in the way of other London 
parishes, let us return for a while to St. Anne's, where 
the names of the higher class of parishioners, such as 
Carpue, Hertslet, Beardmore, of Carlisle Street, etc., 
were gradually giving way to names well known in 
commerce good and worthy names, and in most cases 
good parishioners among these were such well-known 
names as Warne, Eoutledge, D'Almaine, Kirkrnan, 
Novello, Crosse and Blackwell, Kussell Smith, etc. In 
due course, after the old rector's death, the Rev. 
Nugent Wade, from St. Paul's, Bunhill Row, was 
appointed, and daily service and weekly communion 
were the rule, and many good men were serving as 
curates. Mr. Wade was an Irishman, and had several 
Irishmen as curates the Rev. C. Ingham Black, An- 



42 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

drew Nugee, Walter Atkins, arid Percy and Hugh 
Monro, brothers of Edward Monro, and Dr. Henry 
Monro. all four sons of the famous Dr. Monro, the 
physician. The daily service was sung by twelve of 
the Sunday scholars, led by two or three of the teachers. 
In a large Italian building like St. Anne's it took 
some power of voice to sing the daily service without 
any instrument. On one occasion a gentleman of the 
choir had been singing lustily at the eight o'clock 
matins on the morning of his wedding-day : coming 
out one of the curates said, with a bit of a brogue, 
" Faith, and you sing as if nothing at all was going to 
happen to ye " ; it was odd to suppose he was going to 
lose his voice on the happy occasion. At times such 
men as Dr. J. Hen thorn Todd, of Dublin, and Mr. 
Sewell, Warden of Eadley, preached there. All the 
curates were thorough churchmen ; Andrew Nugee was 
one of the most earnest and amiable of these ; he took 
the family living of Wymering, in Hampshire, and 
married the daughter of Mr. Eichards, Vicar of Far- 
lington, a well-known country parson of the Keble 
School, whose parish was quite a model. Mr. Eichards 
wrote telling of his death at Clifton : " He fell asleep 
on Christmas Day (1858), which may truly be said to 
have risen with healing in its wings to him ; in his 
bitter sufferings he was always striving to overcome 
all impatience ; he desired affectionate remembrances 
to all his friends, old and new, and I am sure he meant 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 43 

you amongst others, but was too ill to specify ; he will 
be buried at Wymering." For years, his widow was 
well known as a bright and earnest churchwoman in a 
large town on the south coast. His brother George, 
now also called to his rest, author of Words from the 
Cross, Holy Women of the Gospel, etc., then held the 
family living for some years ; after a very distinguished 
course at Cambridge he had become curate to Mr. Ben- 
nett at St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, and went thence to 
Wymering. He was well known for his mission work 
in South London. 

There was never more than a most moderate ritual 
at the parish church of St. Anne ; indeed, I think the 
altar remained as it was, never raised or enlarged or 
ornamented, and in the course of years the church 
became chiefly known for grand and elaborate musical 
services and the performance of special sacred music ; 
but from the date of Mr. Wade's appointment, fol- 
lowing upon former good teaching, several excellent 
works, fruits of the Church Movement, were begun and 
carried on in this parish ; and as this is not supposed to 
be a strictly chronological record, it may be well to tell 
about them here : these were the House of Charity, 
Eose Street, Soho, opposite the old Charity Schools ; 
the Church of St. Mary-the-Virgin, Crown Street ; and 
Newport Market Kefuge. The House of Charity was 
opened in January, 1847, and was well supported and 
set on foot by some of those best known for good work 



44 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

in the church the Vicar of St. Anne's, Dr. Monro, Dr. 
Brett, Earl Nelson, Mr. Eoundell Palmer, Dr. Ogle, 
the Eev. F. H. Murray, Mrs. Gladstone, Mr. Haddan, 
of Exeter College ; Mr. Algernon Bathurst, of New 
College, grandson of a Bishop of Norwich ; and many 
others. It supplied a want that no other institution 
met. Distressed persons were received on special 
and trusty recommendations ; in-patients discharged 
from hospitals, and out-patients unable to do full work ; 
to such it gave shelter, food, quiet, and rest. Persons 
dependent on those who, by accident or sudden illness, 
had been taken into hospitals ; persons who, by no fault 
of their own, such as by tire, bankruptcy, or death 
of an employer, were thrown out of work ; those 
coming to London in search of friends or employment ; 
those, especially women, whose health required a short 
respite from laborious work ; persons with no friends in 
London, waiting for means and opportunity to emigrate ; 
and others whom it was desired to help towards re- 
covering a position which they had lost through miscon- 
duct. In many other ways this house was and is of help. 
Who can tell the blessing of a kind welcome, rest and 
care to a young girl, even for one night only, on her 
way to a distant part ; what a real act of charity this 
was, what safety ; and what misery it may have pre- 
vented ! The council of the House of Charity had in 
it the names of many of the best and noblest, and it 
still goes on its useful way. It had its early struggles. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 45 

The wardenship was an office held by some clergy of 
repute and standing, and even of renown. In addition 
to the work of their own chapel in the house, they 
assisted at times in St. Anne's and St. Mary's, Crown 
Street. I will name some of them, not in any special 
order : A. J. Butler, W. F. Norris, J. Cosby White, for 
years Vicar of St. Barnabas, Pimlico, the kind and ever- 
helpful priest and gentleman, who, after many years of 
hard parish work, retired to the lovely home, the War- 
den's Lodge, Newlands, amid the fine scenery of Mal- 
vern, with which foundation the memory of Earl 
Beauchamp still lives in our hearts ; H. A. Rawes, 
formerly curate of St. Botolph, Aldgate, and of St. 
Bartholomew's, Moor Lane, who seceded to Eome and 
became a popular preacher at the Pro-Cathedral, Ken- 
sington. Two of the wardens deserve more than a 
passing notice. 

At some of the services at St. Mary's, Crown Street, 
about 1852-3, you might have heard a set of short ser- 
mons on the Psalms ; the preacher, quite young, tall, 
dark, but pleasant and kindly looking, his sermon could 
not but impress you so clear and quiet, yet earnest 
and you felt that many who heard him might share in 
hir-, own deep, practical love to God, and all that tended 
to His praise and glory. This young man was W. G. 
Tupper, warden of the House of Charity, Soho, a 
worthy son of the Church Movement. The story of 
his short life is soon told. He was for a few year.- 



46 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

curate to Mr. Harness, of All Saints, Knightsbridge, 
and was a younger brother of the poet, Martin F. 
Tupper, who in 1856 published a short memoir of him 
under the title of Out and Home. This memoir con- 
tained his journal, three sermons preached at sea, and a 
few poems. It was a small memorial of a life which, 
as we well know, and his brother tells us, combined 
the strictest self-denial with the sweetest cheerfulness ; 
a short life spent in secret good doing ; the tongue of 
gentleness, the heart of love, the mind of sympathy and 
wisdom indeed, a character of surpassing beauty, 
wedded to no common powers of intellect. It was his 
own request that several packets of his manuscript 
should be burnt unread, and so all were thankful for 
the short glimpse this volume gave of a character at 
once beautiful and of great simplicity. A testimony 
to his value as one where sympathy and wisdom could 
be relied on to the utmost is on record : A parish 
priest of many years' standing, himself a wise and 
learned man (Dr. Irons, Vicar of Brompton), was 
known to declare that among all the intricate ques- 
tions on moral, religious, or social difficulties which 
occur to a clergyman in his parish, he at any time 
felt entire confidence in leaving the most perplexing 
to the decision of Mr. Tupper, although his junior by 
many years in parish toil and experience. 

The biography was well and fairly written, though it 
will not surprise us to know that the author of Pro- 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 47 

verbial Philosophy had little intimate knowledge of his 
brother, as he freely acknowledges thus : " For myself, 
the solicited editor of these pages, let me confess to a 
great personal difficulty in the matter; friends are 
oftentimes more intimately known to one another than 
those who are nearest of kin an expression which I 
almost involuntarily gave utterance to soon after hear- 
ing of William's death is but the simple truth, and 
as heart speaks to heart in these matters, I will even 
set it here : 

" Alas, how little have I known thee, brother ; 
How lightly prized the riches of thy worth ; 
How seldom sought thee out to cherish thee 
And sun my spirit in thy light of love ! 
How have I let the world and all its ways, 
Absence and distance, cares and interest, 
The many poor excuses that we make 
For lax communion with a brother's heart ; 
How have I stood aside and left such tares 
To grow up rank, and choke the precious seed ! 
How have I let such fogbanks of reserve, 
Such idle clouds of undesigned neglect, 
Hide from my spirit thy most lovely light 1 " 

William George Tupper was the youngest son of the 
late Martin Tupper, of New Burlington Street ; born in 
1824 ; educated at Winchester, and scholar of Trinity 
College, Oxford ; was ordained deacon at St. Paul's 
Cathedral in June, 1849, and priest in the Chapel 
Royal, St. James's, in 1850, and very soon became 
warden of the House of Charity, where he devoted his 
means and remaining energies to the service of God arid 



4 8 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

the poor. The sea voyage recorded in this book was 
urged on him by his friends and physicians. He 
started in August, 1853 ; visited the West Indies, 
Cape Town, the Mauritius, Ceylon, Bombay, Cairo, 
etc. ; he died in his thirtieth year, at sea, in May, 1854, 
soon after leaving Malta on his way home, and was 
buried at sea ; it was a privilege even to slightly know 
him: and who shall measure the influence of such a 
character ? 

The other warden who combined the incumbency of 
St. Mary's, Crown Street, with the wardenship, was 
the Rev. J. C. Chambers ; it was an excellent work of 
Mr. Wade and his friends to purchase the old Baptist 
Chapel that in 1850 stood on the west side of Crown 
Street, with a frontage to the street and a court of 
densely-crowded small houses round ; those who only 
know Charing Cross Eoad and Shaftesbury Avenue and 
the several wide thoroughfares about, cannot imagine 
the change since the days of which I write. Many of 
the courts right and left of Crown Street were not very 
safe, even for the clergy and district visitors ; one with 
the distinguished name of " Falconberg Court " could 
scarcely be invaded without a policeman. When the 
Baptists were about to give up the chapel, and there 
was a chance that it might be made into a music-hall 
or dancing-room, the Rector of St. Anne's and his 
friends came forward and bought it, and it became a 
church where much good work was done. But it had a 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 49 

history, and a curious one : it was originally an old 
Greek church, founded in 1677, under a metropolitan 
of Samos, who had been driven out by the Turks ; the 
Greek service continued till 1683, and was then given 
up for want of funds. In 1684 it was leased to French 
Protestants, and used by them till 1822, when the 
Baptists had it till 1849. Under Mr. Philip C. Hard- 
wick, the architect, himself an active churchman, the 
inside was remodelled, and made fit for the service of 
the Church of England ; he himself carried the large 
iron cross up the body of the church on the way to the 
scaffold to fix it on the roof. With a handsome altar, 
choir stalls, pulpit, lectern, etc., it made quite an im- 
pressive building, and its old friends certainly would 
not have known it, though one of the old Baptist 
women did sometimes find her way into the church, 
explaining that she could hear the Lessons, and they 
were sure to be all right. The church was consecrated 
as a chapel of ease to St. Anne's, on St. Peter's Day, 
1850, with bright stirring services, and a ritual that 
was much more advanced than that of the parish 
church ; and no doubt it was felt that in an old church, 
one of the largest churches of London, ranking with 
St. Martin, St. Giles, St. James, St. George, Hanover 
Square, etc., with their proper old-fashioned congrega- 
tions, an advanced ritual might not be then advisable. 
The choir (now in cassocks and surplices) worked well, 
and attained a fair proficiency. They were kindly 

4 



50 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

assisted in their training by Mr. Helmore and Mr. 
Kedhead ; the latter, when practising the hymn-tunes, 
which they sang with much vigour, especially " Inno- 
cents," which was then new to them, advised them to 
beware of merely pretty tunes. An octave of services 
was kept, and many of the great Church preachers of 
. the day came. On one of the days, at evensong, as the 
choir were robing, there came an alarm of fire : an old 
woman's bed curtains had caught fire in the court just 
opposite the vestry door ; four or five of the choir soon 
had their surplices off, and tore down the curtains and 
put out the fire ; the old woman had a talking starling 
for whose safety she seemed much more anxious than 
her own. The first incumbent was the Kev. Walter 
Blunt, a genial, bright, and most courteous man, the 
author of several works on the new Church lines, on 
ecclesiastical restoration and reform, Church rates, 
parish officers, education, Church bells, etc. He did 
not remain long, and afterwards married a Kentish 
lady, and held the vicarage of Bicknor. He was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Archer Gurney, who was slightly 
lame ; a man of unusual power and talent as a divine 
and a poet, though not, perhaps, quite at home in such 
a district and among such parishioners. He preached 
well, and with great energy, and it used to be said that 
his reading of the Lessons was quite dramatic. During 
his four years, 1851 to 1854, both he and his mother 
were devoted to the work ; it was in his time that Mr. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 51 

Tupper preached, and at times Frederick Denison 
Maurice, then in London, and full of his plans of 
Christian Socialism to get a hold on the working men ; 
his refined ascetic face and his sharp telling sermons 
were familiar to us. Mr. Gurney held several posts of 
work, the most important being the chaplaincy to the 
Court Chapel, Paris, from 1858 to 1871 : his last place 
of residence was Oxford, and he died at Bath in 1887. 
He was a very voluminous author, and many of his 
works were popular : Songs of Faith and Cheer, Songs 
of the Present, Songs of Early Summer, Sermons in 
French preached in Paris, Parables and Meditations for 
Sundays and Holydays, several hymns in Mr. Shipley's 
Lyra Eucharistica, and the well-known carol Come ye 
lofty, come ye lowly. He wrote special hymns for the 
Dedication Feast at St. Mary's. He also took part in 
the controversies of the day, and wrote for many of the 
best reviews. 

The next vicar was a curate of St. Anne's, the Rev. 
Walter B. Atkins, M.A., of Trinity College, Dublin, 
one in every way worthy to be named with his con- 
temporary and friend, the great Irish professor and 
theologian, Archer Butler. At St. Anne's and at St. 
Mary's he endeared himself to all, and worked on, 
spending himself in his Master's service, in this, one of 
the most densely crowded and unhealthy districts of 
all London. There, with daily prayers, frequent Com- 
munion and constant preaching, he continued till 1856, 



52 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

when failing health compelled him to exchange with 
Mr. Chambers to the quiet country vicarage of St. Mary 
Magdalen, Harlow, Essex, now much enlarged and 
beautified under the present vicar, Mr. Elwell. Though 
Mr. Atkins was a scholar and theologian, all the details 
of his office at St. Mary's were duly attended to, and 
he was much valued by all who knew him. In all 
matters his advice and sound judgment were to be 
thoroughly relied on, and clear and orthodox views of 
Church principles were set before the inquirer with an 
ever cheerful and unruffled temper. He wrote several 
theological essays ; and a small volume on the Eternal 
Sonship of Christ ; the Resurrection, and the Kingdom of 
Heaven, was published in 1859, forming a memorial of 
this quiet Christian priest, and with some the recollec- 
tion of his earnest and holy life will be more than a 
memory. He died at Brighton, and was buried there ; 
during his short stay he preached at St. Paul's Church, 
West Street. 

Then came a bright and stirring time under the Eev. 
J. C. Chambers, who brought with him all the energy 
and strength gathered in his labour of founding and 
working St. Ninian's Cathedral, Perth. He worked 
hard for this parish of St. Mary's, and the House of 
Charity, of which he was warden, both grew and 
prospered under his powers of organisation. The House 
of Charity attained the new premises in Soho Square, 
and made great progress in its most useful work. At 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 53 

the anniversary in 1859 Mr. Chambers' address was a 
perfect model of what such an appeal should be, 
thoroughly to the point and eminently practical. 
Under him St. Mary's became a vicarage with a 
decent income ; new schools, taking nearly 1000 chil- 
dren, clergy house, ragged schools, Church guilds, 
dinners for the sick and invalids, etc. A handsome 
chancel, 34 ft. long, and 60 ft. high, was built on to 
the old nave, the foundation-stone being laid by Canon 
Liddon in 1870. For eighteen years this most ener- 
getic parish priest laboured in every way, dealing with 
men and women and caring for their souls. He was 
one who spoke out, did not say smooth things, or deal 
otherwise than skilfully and firmly. He published a 
large volume of fifty-two sermons, and a small volume 
of sermons edited by Mr. Elkington, his curate and suc- 
cessor in the House of Charity. Mr. Chambers died in 
1874. A thoroughly loyal English Churchman, he 
printed several valuable pamphlets on our position as 
to the Church of Eome, one especially on St. Gregory 
the Great. 

One interesting incident of the work at St. Mary's 
may be named ; it was in 1850, its first year, when 
many friends there took a last farewell of William 
Fredk. Taylor, who was ordained deacon and priest in 
three months, and started for the Island of Tristan 
d'Acunha, in the South Atlantic Ocean, 1500 miles 
from the Cape and the same from St. Helena. There 



54 RECOLLECTIONS OF OXFORD MOVEMENT. 

he worked bravely on for his little flock for six years, 
being priest and choirmaster and schoolmaster, training 
children for the service who had never heard a note of 
music in their lives, their only Hymnal the New Ver- 
sion bound in the Prayer-book, and a card of Hymns 
printed for them in Crown Street, by Mr. Blunt. Mr. 
Taylor's first Church teaching was from Mr. Dodsworth 
at Christ Church, Albany Street. A visit to the Kev. H. 
Moody, at G-ilston Eectory, near Harlow, had resulted in 
his becoming a student for mission work. When they 
outgrew the resources of the island, the bishop sent a 
vessel to bring nearly all to the Cape, where Mr. Taylor 
is working still, being Rector of Moss el Bay, a parish 
of 200 square miles, where he has a record of thirty-six 
years' work in Africa, two churches, and three out 
stations, where the communicants have steadily in- 
creased in number, and the Church's work makes good 
way. Many clergy and laity at St. Mary's were deeply 
interested in him and his work, his missionary spirit 
having no doubt been stirred up by the devotion of 
such friends as Chas. Middleton MacLeod, perpetual 
curate of St. John Baptist, Harlow, and son of the old 
Rector of St. Anne's, lately mentioned. It is needful 
to record that Dr. Littledale was a constant and much 
valued visitor and preacher in the Church of St. Mary, 
Crown Street, 



OHAPTEE III. 

I HAVE hinted at the enthusiasm which was aroused in 
many hearts by the works of Dr. Neale, Mr. Paget, Mr. 
Gresley, Mr. Heygate, and others ; this showed itself 
in an interest wherever Church matters could be ad- 
vanced and improved, and many valuable suggestions 
were made which, though but little noticed at the 
time, were not altogether without effect. One rather 
singular instance is worth recording, the result of a 
visit to Dover by a young Churchman in 1842, about 
the time when Mr. Glover was Vicar of Chaiiton-in- 
Dover, and drove out in his gig to take his daily ser- 
vice there ; rather eccentric, and devoted to some scien- 
tific pursuits, such as the building of a sea-wall, etc. 
He was a staunch Churchman, and much improved the 
service at Charlton ; he also wrote in defence of the 
Ancient British Church and the succession of Bishops. 
This was the letter that the young Churchman wrote, 
after his first visit to Dover ; it appeared in the Times 
of November 8, 1842 : 

"THE ARMY. 

" SIR, Your important articles on the moral and re- 
(55) 



56 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

ligious provision for the Army recall to my mind the 
manner in which we of this day so often neglect great 
opportunities ; you remind us that the barracks, dock- 
yards and fortifications round our coast are almost 
equally destitute of this most important provision. On 
a recent visit to Dover Castle I was much struck with 
the substantial appearance of the old Eoman or Saxon 
Church within the walls. It seems as if at no very great 
expense a roof might be thrown over, it might be paved 
and fitted up, and 500 of the garrison, their wives and 
children, might worship within the same consecrated 
walls where their forefathers did eight or nine cen- 
turies ago. The interior is still very beautiful and 
most substantial. Would it be any less interesting to 
the antiquary if, instead of being used as a storehouse 
for coals, and shown to visitors on payment of six- 
pence, its doors were open for prayer and praise, and 
the bell of the old church once again rang over the 
beautiful hills of Kent, with which county our religious 
associations are so forcibly linked ? In the earnest 
hope of much abler and worthier advocates of such a 
cause I venture to make this humble suggestion. 

" Your obedient servant, W. G." 

I only quote this as an instance of the spirit aroused 
by such works as Bernard Leslie, Warden of Berking- 
holt, St. Antholin's, The Forest of Jrden, Coniston Hall, 
Tales of the Village, etc., etc. The remarkable part 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 



57 



is that ten years, twenty years, passed, and in 1860-62 
that old church was restored by a grant from Parlia- 
ment, under the direction of Sir Gilbert Scott ; re-dedi- 
cated, June 22, 1862. The restoration thus begun was 
continued during 1888-90 by Mr. Butterfield, com- 
pleting the tower, nave windows, sanctuary, approach 
to the altar, altar piece, seats, desks, floors, pavements ; 
and the walls were covered with mosaics ; thus the old 
church was once more made a beautiful house worthy 
of its sacred use. 

The mention of Dover would hardly be complete 
without naming the Vicar of St. Mary's, Mr. Puckle, 
and his long and earnest labours on the lines of the new 
movement, with regret that failing health obliged him 
to resign, and that he so soon passed away. 

Talking of this corner of Kent, the only place where 
much stirring Church work was then being done, was 
Ramsgate, at the Parish Church of St. George, and the 
chapel of ease. Mr. Harvey was the vicar, and many 
of his curates were excellent workers and writers, and 
among them Shirley Woolmer, W. J. Jenkins, C. C. 
Snowden, S. B. Harper ; I think Mr. Whitehead was 
then working there. Though there was but little 
attempt at ritual, there were frequent services, much 
reverence, and bright and stirring preaching. Many 
visitors at Margate walked or rode over to these ser- 
vices, and were thankful for them. In this county 
three Canterbury churches were forward Folkestone, 



58 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

St. Andrew's, Deal, and Walmer; also, later on, St. 
Peter's, Broadstairs, and Margate joined in the work. 

Speaking of bright and earnest preaching reminds 
us how much the early part of the Church Movement 
was distinguished in this way, and it is hardly possible 
to over-rate its value and influence. One great help in 
this especial line was the publication in 1839 of the ten 
volumes of Plain Sermons "by the Contributors to the 
Tracts for the Times, by Newman, Pusey, J. and T. 
Keble, Isaac Williams, and Copeland. Mr. Isaac 
Williams was the chief mover in that series, and the 
object was a most wise one. These sermons placed 
the chief truths then being put forward with such 
energy by the great writers, in a plain, simple, and 
restful way, giving a more practical turn to the move- 
ment ; they were like the ballast to the brilliancy of 
Mr. Newman and others. What a boon these sermons 
must have been to hard-working parish priests who 
certainly could not secure the leisure to write more 
than one good sermon a week ! Mr. Keble mentions a 
saying of Justice Coleridge, before the Tracts were 
thought of : "If you want to propagate your opinions 
you should lend your sermons, the clergy would then 
preach them, and adopt your opinions " ; and this has 
really been the effect of the publication of the Plain 
and other Sermons. It seems a pity that the price of 
the volumes was so high. Dr. Irons, in his Sermons 
for the People, adopted an excellent plan ; each sermon 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 59 

was one penny, eight pages of print, and could be taken 
out of the volume and easily used in the pulpit. 

This practice of lending sermons was no doubt fre- 
quently adopted, but in some cases led to rather unex- 
pected results, as when a memoir was published and a 
few sermons were printed at the end, and one or two of 
the sermons turned out not to be by the clergy man 
whose memoir had been written. This rather alarmed 
some worthy men, and they no doubt gave special 
instructions as to any MSS. they might leave behind 
them. A rather good story came in early days from 
the north-west of London on this subject. Mr. Faulk- 
ner began work in an iron church in Hampstead, just 
off the Finchley Eoad, and got together a congregation 
on Church lines, and it is with regret we remember his 
early death. One Sunday morning he preached a ser- 
mon to which one of his congregation took exception, 
and wrote to the bishop (Blomfield) to complain. The 
bishop wrote a kind note to Mr. Faulkner, suggesting 
that it might be as well that he should see the sermon. 
Mr. Faulkner sent it to the bishop, at the same time 
telling him that it was not his own, but was lent to 
him by a friend, a clergyman in the north of London. 
In due course the bishop returned the sermon, thanking 
Mr. Faulkner for allowing him to see it. He had read 
it with pleasure, and only wished he (the bishop) could 
write one half as good. I may mention that Mr. 
Faulkner's friend not only wrote admirable sermons, 



60 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

but wrote them in a singularly clear and print-like 
handwriting. 

In the north-west of London Mr. Fletcher, of St. 
Saviour's, Haverstock Hill, and his excellent curate Mr. 
J. C. Hose, were also doing good solid work, and Mr. 
Baines, Chaplain to the Tailors' Almshouses, Haver- 
stock Hill, Lecturer on History in Queen's College, 
London, afterwards Vicar of Little Mario w, was work- 
ing with much influence both as preacher and writer ; 
for years he kept up daily prayers and weekly Com- 
munion. His Life of Archbishop Laud, Sermons, Tales 
of the Empire, and many contributions to the Ecclesias- 
tic, place him in the rank of a very able scholar and 
writer of the Church Movement. Mr. Cutts, the vicar 
of a church close by, was for years a most zealous worker 
on the same lines, and still writes many excellent books. 

One of the earliest notes of the practical results of 
the Church Movement was the establishment of daily 
service; very remarkable was the rapid increase of 
this revival of old custom, and happily the daily 
service was seldom without the other great essential, 
the "Weekly Communion". So in 1849 the first 
edition of a small sixpenny book was issued, called 
Masters Guide to the Churches where the Daily Prayers 
are said in England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland ; and 
in 1857 the twenty-second edition was published. 
Part of the preface to this little work is worth re- 
peating. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 61 

" To travellers, this Guide may be of use, by enabling 
them so to arrange their journeys and to choose their 
resting-places, as to be able to avail themselves of the 
prayers of the Church. The parish priest manfully 
standing alone in the practice of daily service in the 
midst of passive carelessness, or active opposition, will 
be encouraged to find how many of his brethren per- 
severe in the same holy duty, and will be more especially 
interested in those .cases where the hours of prayer are 
the same as his own. 

" And is it too much to hope that more may be 
stirred up to follow the many good examples here set 
before them ? The churches where Holy Communion 
is celebrated weekly have here been marked with a -f-." 

In this edition over 500 churches were entered, 60 in 
London and the neighbourhood, and 122 where there 
was a weekly celebration of the Holy Communion. The 
latest edition was the thirty-seventh, 1869, with a 
map of the London churches contained in the list. In 
this edition the number of country churches with daily 
service was 1004, and in 556 of these there was weekly 
Communion. In London there were 139 churches, and 
of these 115 had weekly Communion. 

It is not difficult to imagine what the influence and 
teaching year by year of these 1140 churches was, ami 
how it affected the younger members of the Church ; 
how they were attracted not only by the beauty, rever- 
ence, and order, but by the depth and reality ; the 



62 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

increased earnestness in every good work, the care of 
the sick and poor, and the instruction and catechising 
of the young ; the higher value set on Holy Com- 
munion, Holy Baptism, and Confirmation. Many of 
these churches were models and working centres of the 
new movement, influencing thousands besides those 
immediately connected with them. Such churches as 
St. Paul's, Knightsbridge ; St. Barnabas, Pimlico ; All 
Saints, Margaret Street ; St. Alban's, Holborn ; St. An- 
drew's, Wells Street ; St. Matthew's, City Road ; Si. 
Bartholomew's, Moor Lane ; St. Mary Magdalen's, 
Munster Square ; St. Mary Magdalen's, Paddington ; 
St. Augustine's, Kilburn ; St. Matthias, Stoke Newing- 
ton; St. Peter's, Vauxhall, and St. Philip's, Clerken- 
well were all such special centres of work. 

It is sad to remember that in many quarters the 
simple fact of daily service and weekly Communion 
was then looked upon with dislike and suspicion. This 
was really the case with some so-called Evangelicals of 
this time, the second or third generation of those who 
had been governed by the influence of teachers like 
Hervey, Romaine, Cecil, Venn, Fletcher, Scott, etc. 
How clearly has this school been described by Dean 
Church : " It shrank in its fear of mere moralising, in 
its horror of the idea of merit or of the value of good 
works, from coming into contact with the manifold 
realities of the spirit of man it had nothing to say to 
the long and varied process of building up the new life 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 63 

of truth and goodness ; it was nervously afraid of 
departing from the consecrated phrases of its school, 
and in the perpetual iteration of them it lost hold of 
the meaning they may once have had ; claiming to be 
exclusively spiritual, fervent, unworldly, it had come, 
in fact, to be on very easy terms with the world". A 
remarkable testimony to Dean Church's judgment will 
occur to those who remember that through all the 
years of the Tractarian controversy, it was an un- 
doubted fact that when the most secular and worldly 
newspapers, such as the Weekly Dispatch, the Sunday 
Observer, and the Morning Advertiser, the organ of the 
licensed victuallers, took note of the religious events 
of the day, they always and invariably took the side 
of the Evangelical or Low Church party ; through the 
Liddell controversy, the St. George's Eiots, this was 
always the case. 

The chief stronghold of this phase of religion at 
this time was undoubtedly the parish of Islington, one 
of the largest parishes in London, with its 100,000 
inhabitants, its many district churches (ten built up to 
1856, during the incumbency of Mr. Daniel Wilson, 
the successor of Bishop Wilson, of Calcutta), all closely 
kept under the patronage of the vicar and special trus- 
tees ; it seemed like an impregnable fortress of Puri- 
tanism ; and although the surrounding districts of Stoke 
Newington, Highbury, Haggerston, and Clerkenwell, 
were now alive to, and stirring in the new and revived 



64 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

work of the Church Movement, yet there was no getting 
into the magic circle of that parish boundary. 

The story of an attempt to do so will be instructive. 
In 1856 the Vicar of Islington estimated that there were 
30,000 persons in his vast parish, for whose spiritual 
instruction no place was found either in churches or 
chapels, and appealed for help to build more churches. 
Some dwellers in Islington were also being influenced 
by the writings of the Tractarians, and they could not 
but see for themselves that in all the churches of Is- 
lington, nine-tenths of the Prayer-book was a dead 
letter ; that the plainest injunctions for daily service, 
weekly Communion, the observance of saints' days, fast 
days, eves, vigils, catechising, private offices, etc., were 
entirely ignored ; that, while those who acted up to, or 
seemed to go beyond, what the Islington clergy con- 
sidered the order of the Church, were denounced in no 
measured language, they themselves entirely omitted 
just as much as they pleased and ignored the 
plainest directions. So it came to pass that in 1865 a 
gentleman residing in Canonbury Park, in reply to the 
vicar's appeal, offered to build and endow a church 
where daily service might be performed, such as men 
could join in before proceeding to their city business, 
to build the parsonage and endow the church, also to 
build schools if the district required them, upon condition 
that an agreement satisfactory to him could be made 
with regard to the patronage. He wished for no per- 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 65 

sonal patronage; but he was not content to spend 8000 
or 10,000 to enrich the Vicar of Islington, augment 
the market value of his advowson, and to increase 
his already enormous patronage. This offer was de- 
clined by Mr. Daniel Wilson, although the daily ser- 
vice and the patronage were the only two stipulations, 
on the ground that " the proposal emanated from one 
identified with the Eomanising movement in our 
Church, associated with a congregation whose minister 
not long since joined the Church of Eome. I cannot 
doubt but that the present is an attempt to introduce 
into the parish such a system as is pursued at St. Barna- 
bas, Pimlico, or St. Paul's, Brighton on this ground I 
have, in concurrence with all the incumbents of the 
parish, rejected the offer; we feel bound to protest 
against the movement and boldly to maintain those 
Protestant and Evangelical principles which are the 
glory of our reformed Church." In his final reply the 
gentleman certainly told the Vicar of Islington some 
home truths. I add a few of them : 

1. That it was a want of good feeling and Christian 
courtesy not to have sent a copy of his circular declin- 
ing the offer to the parishioner who made the offer, and 
the person chiefly referred to. 

2. That he and his friends simply wanted a church 
for themselves and their children, through the public 
services of which they might enjoy the privileges and 
blessings of the reformed Church of England. 

5 



66 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

3. That the stipulation as to patronage was made 
because there were parishes where the daily service 
and other long-established privileges had been arbi- 
trarily put down by new incumbents of his school 
without regard to the feelings and consciences of many 
parishioners. 

4. That any generous mind, unwarped by party 
spirit, would give a voice to those who erect churches 
and liberally support them, in the disposal of that 
which they munificently provide. 

5. That the Church of England prescribes daily ser- 
vice, but the vicar and incumbents of Islington proscribe 
it from their churches. 

6. That when the offer was made the proposer was 
identified with an Islington incumbent, and was one of 
the committee for St. Paul's and St. Jude's Schools ; but 
that hearing the outcry in Islington against St. Mat- 
thias, he was led to go and see for himself : that he 
found there what he and others had long felt the want 
of in the cold services of the Islington churches found 
how the Church of England would have her children 
taught to worship God in the beauty of holiness, with 
more of God's word and less of man's talk in the ser- 
mons, and no harsh judgments or uncharitable censures 
on either their fellow-Churchmen or others. 

7. That the Vicar of Islington had no more right to 
charge a member of St. Matthias with Eomanising than 
the latter had to call the vicar a Dissenter because he 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 67 

was a friend of the Hon. and Eev. Baptist Noel ; or a 
Socinian because he fraternised with the Swiss clergy, 
some of whom have denied the Divine Nature of the 
Son of God. 

8. That the largest Dissenting Chapel in all London 
was shortly to be built in Islington, and that two 
Roman missions are now there. 

9. That the Weekly Register in July of 1865 said: 
" There is no diminution of converts, but they have 
recently come, not so much from the rank of Tractarians 
as from the Low Church or even Presbyterian School ". 

10. That Islington is the family living of the Wilson 
family, purchased at Garraway's Coffee House ; that 
the then vicar had kept under his own control the 
nomination to the ten churches which the inhabitants 
so liberally enabled him to build. 

The vicar and the layman have long since gone to their 
rest, but the story is characteristic of those times. The 
effect of the bitter denunciation of the Oxford School 
by the Islington clergy was not always what they 
desired. In Dr. Liddon's short memoir of the saintly 
Bishop of Salisbury (Hamilton), we read of the result 
in his case, how he felt the contrast between the denun- 
ciations at Islington, and the quiet, holy, Christian 
lives of the men who represented the movement, and 
became a High Churchman. 

There were not so many daily services available just 
then in and about London ; a special one was a late 



68 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

daily evensong at half-past eight, at All Souls, Lang- 
ham Place, when Dr. Chandler, afterwards Dean of 
Chichester, was rector. This was one of the earliest 
attempts to improve the choral parts of the Prayer- 
book Service. Mr. Ingram, a bright and talented 
musician, had been brought from the country, and for 
this service there was an harmonium at the west end 
of the centre aisle. Mr. Ingram lived and worked as a 
Church musician for some years in London, publishing 
and editing, on the lines of the ancient Church music, 
chants, canticles, anthems, etc. Some will remember 
Dr. Chandler's never-varying kindness and care in his 
pastoral duties; and the daughter churches of All Saints, 
Margaret Street, and St. Andrew's, Wells Street, were 
not a little indebted to his courage and care. His curates, 
too, Mr. Fallow, Mr. Wollaston, afterwards Vicar of 
Felpham and Canon of Chichester, Mr. Murray, and 
others, should not be left out of the record. When Dr. 
Chandler became Dean of Chichester, he devoted him- 
self to the work and care of his Cathedral, and was but 
little heard of out of his Deanery ; the great west win- 
dow was a tribute of respect to him from his parishioners 
of All Souls. But for him the beautiful Sussex marble 
pillars might have remained longer under their endless 
coats of whitewash, the nave filled with its tall un- 
sightly pews, the old monuments and pavements have 
gone into more ruinous decay. He put up a beautiful 
stained-glass window to the memory of his sister. His 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 69 

care extended to every part of his charge : the choris- 
ters, the lay vicars, the organ, the outside of the 
Cathedral, the east end, the roofs and the churchyard, 
all were under his fostering care, supported by the city 
and diocese, and all the Chapter ; the city, its churches 
and institutions, too, were remembered by him. He 
died in 1859, and his funeral was attended with every 
mark of respect and affection. He left 2000 in trust 
to be applied towards the decoration of the Cathedral, 
or the aiding of the Theological College. Few names 
were more revered among the early practical workers 
in the revival of the Church principles. He was a 
son of the Eev. John Chandler, of Witley, Surrey ; was 
educated at Winchester, and became a Fellow of New 
College, Oxford ; was Bampton Lecturer in 1825, and 
was for some years tutor to the Duke of Buccleuch. 
In worth and heartiness, though not in scholarship, his 
name may rank with those of Dr. Mill and Dr. Pea- 
cock. It was a John Chandler, of "Witley, his brother, 
who made the earliest translations of the old Latin 
hymns under the title of The Hymvis of the Church ; 
though that work was out of print years ago, many of 
the translations are familiar to us now, and are used in 
all our best collections. 

A little later, 1837, Bishop Mant published his 
translation of hymns from the Eoman Breviary. A 
few words from his preface will tell us much of 
how things even then were advancing, and how an 



70 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Irish bishop of that day could speak with no un- 
certain tongue. 

" To those who are acquainted with the history of 
our Book of Common Prayer it is well known that our 
excellent Keformers, studious of goodness rather than 
of novelty, constructed their provisions for the public 
worship of the Church upon the foundation of previously 
existing forms. Accordingly our Common Prayer- 
book has derived a large portion of its contents from 
the Breviary or Daily Service-book of the Eomish 
Church, purified from corruption, reduced to the stan- 
dard of Holy Scripture, as professed by the Catholic 
Church of Christ. Together with its other voluminous 
provisions, the Breviary contains a considerable num- 
ber of hymns used in the regular course of its daily, 
weekly, or occasional services, one of which, known by 
the name of ' Veni Creator Spiritus/ has been adopted 
by our Church in her ' Ordering of Priests ' and ' Con - 
secration of Bishops'. 

" Bishop Ken is related to have daily sung to his 
lute his morning and evening hymns, which partake 
much of the character of some of these hymns from 
the Breviary. As a Winchester College boy, Ken must 
have been familiar with the ' Jam lucis orto sidere,' 
which was sung forty or fifty years ago, when I was 
one of William of Wykeham's scholars, and I presume 
still continues to be sung by the College boys." 

Mr. Isaac Williams' translation of hymns from the 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 71 

Parisian Breviary is worthy of mention with these 
two volumes. 

Westminster Abbey was then a great delight to all 
young Church-folk, and one special and additional 
daily service was often attended even from a distance : 
this was the 7'15 (7'45 winter) early-morning prayer, 
chiefly established for the young men in the National 
Society's Training College in Westminster. This ser- 
vice was attended by many whose names were familiar 
in the after-history of the Church Movement. Dr. 
Hook was there whenever he was in town ; he was 
then Vicar of Leeds, the apostle of the Church to the 
great middle class, as Dean Church calls him; Dr. 
Wordsworth, Canon and afterwards Bishop of Lincoln ; 
Dr. Williamson, headmaster of Westminster School ; 
Canon Jennings, Eector of St. John the Evangelist ; 
Sir William Henry Cope, then Minor Canon ; Lord 
John Thynne ; many laymen of the neighbourhood ; 
Mr. Maude, Mr. and the Hon. Mrs. Talbot, father 
and mother of the Member for the University of Ox- 
ford, and the present Vicar of Leeds. The service, a 
plain one, of course, was taken by the Rev. John Aubone 
Cook, then curate to Dr. Milman, who held St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, and was afterwards Dean of St. 
Paul's. Few would have seen anything remarkable 
about Mr. Cook, and yet he was really one of those 
whose life was a perfect specimen of the country parish 
priest, by whom the principles of the Church Move- 



72 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

ment were set forth in life and conversation ; and it 
was by the influence of such men that the revival grew 
and increased as it did. I give a short sketch, ta^ken 
chiefly from Mr. Hey gate's small biography, of him. 

John Aubone Cook was of a good family, and was 
brought up in France, and then at a school in Eng- 
land, at Woolwich. In 1829, on the death of Col. 
Cook, his father, Mr. Cook went to India ; but, not 
finding the opening he wished for, returned. On the 
voyage home the ship was dismasted, and all hope that 
they should be saved was taken away. In the storm 
he thought that if his life were preserved, it would be 
a right act of gratitude to dedicate it to God in His 
ministry. He entered Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, and came out senior optime. He was or- 
dained as curate to Dean Milman in 1838. He devoted 
himself to theological study, and the bishop told him 
that he had done himself the greatest credit in that. 
He spent twelve years of unremitting toil as Curate of 
St. Margaret's, and those who knew him there told of 
his untiring industry, his tender compassion and steady 
devotion ; " love " and " reverence " were the terms in 
which those who knew him at Westminster spoke. On 
one occasion at St. Margaret's, some Frenchmen entered 
the church, and walked about admiring and criticising 
with their hats on ; Mr. Cook electrified the offenders 
by calling out in the very manner and accent in which 
such a rebuke would have been given in their own 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 73 

country : " It is a church, gentlemen ! it is a church ". 
The hats were promptly removed. In the autumn of 
1849 Mr. Cook was overdone by attending to those who 
were sick of the cholera, and at that time he buried 
fifty people in one week. Those who did not know 
him could form no idea of his toil. Mr. Cook did not 
meet those whom he buried for the first time at the 
grave, and he did not visit in a hurried or negligent 
manner ; his characteristic was his earnest, thorough 
treatment of every subject ; he led a man to say and do 
the right thing at the last, to withdraw the slander, to 
restore the unrighteous gain. During the ten years 
from 1840 that he was early reader at the Abbey, he 
was never once late. He resided in London with his 
widowed mother, and was a head to the family. 

He was appointed in 1850 to the vicarage of South 
Benfleet, in Essex, then out of the way of all men ; and 
so Mr. Cook passed from the society of highly-educated 
men to an entire solitude. This was the one great trial 
of his life. In 1852 he was made rural dean ; in this 
office he had long, weary walks, and fostered much 
care of the holy edifices, vestments, and sacred furni- 
ture. He never yielded to any irreverent custom such 
as writing his entries on the altar, but uniformly re- 
fused to do so. He never entered a church without 
offering a short prayer. On one occasion, when look- 
ing over a new church, he observed that there was no 
place for washing the holy vessels after a celebration of 



74 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

the Sacrament. He received for reply, that such a provi- 
sion was not sanctioned by the English Church. " How 
do you show this ? " he said. " There is no order for it 
in the rubrics," was answered. " Is there any for 
washing the surplices ? " was the conclusive rejoin- 
der. 

A Mormonite was once preaching on the roadside at 
Benfleet ; the vicar passed by, and when an oppor- 
tunity offered, he said, " Will you allow me to ask you 
one question ? " 

" Certainly," was the reply. 

" Is it true or not that your chiefs at the Salt Lake 
have many wives ? " 

The preacher could not but allow it, and was justify- 
ing it. Mr. Cook turned round and said, " Now, my 
friends, you have heard that this man teaches a religion 
which leads to a man having many wives ; do you wish 
this for your daughters ? " 

" No." 

Mr. Cook went home and the people with him, and 
the preacher was left by himself on a heap of stones. 

As rural dean Mr. Cook had to examine and report 
on the schools ; his love for children fitted him well to 
instruct them. At all school-feasts he was at home, 
and never happier ; he has been seen to take the plate 
of a child, and eat of its rice pudding, when it was in 
trouble because it had been sentenced to finish the rice 
or have nothing else. But some wonderful work was 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 75 

in store for this poor vicar. In the summer of 1854 
the railway was being constructed, and a number of 
excavators and workmen lodged in Benfleet and 
crowded its cottages. In that summer the cholera 
visited England, and fell most heavily on this parish, 
and there were no well-to-do residents to help in such 
a calamity. 

On one occasion his example was effectual. An old 
man was ill in the village, and his nurse was worn out. 
Mr. Cook went down and sat up all night with the 
man offers of help came after that. In 1854 the 
terror seemed too great ; and while he considered 
the safety of others, the whole weight and labour 
and danger fell on his own shoulders. He visited 
the sick and dying, not from morning to night, but 
from week's end to week's end, and for seven whole 
days and nights he never went to his bed ; for nearly 
three weeks he had not one whole night's rest. From 
house to house he hastened, forgetting to eat, adminis- 
tered the medicines, rubbed the limbs, praying when- 
ever one was conscious. Physician of body and soul, 
he was spent for his flock, and for these godless, 
drunken strangers as well. One of these great navvies 
who, when Mr. Cook was urging him to come to 
church, replied that he had torment enough on week- 
days, being taken with the cholera, sent to beg Mr. 
Cook to come to him. At his bedside Mr. Cook 
passed the whole night. It is not easy to describe the 



76 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

scene ; he shrank from no office, however terrible, and 
lived in the room occupied by several of these coarse 
men. Doctor, nurse, priest, without repose and almost 
without food, he comforted, assisted, supplied want, 
and prayed. He had fresh air only when he went 
about other work in the parish ; he himself buried 
those whom he had nursed, forty in one month. In 
such a pestilence there was little time for the thorough 
spiritual treatment which was usual, but he did what 
he could. One case of restitution he effected ; a man 
who had forsaken his wife and was living with another 
wrote, by Mr. Cook's hands, to his wife, asked her par- 
don, dismissed the other woman, and died. A traveller 
was seized in the village, every home was closed to 
him, and the people said, " There is but one home that 
will take you in, and that is the vicarage ". He was 
carried upstairs by Mr. Cook and a neighbour, put to 
bed, nursed and attended till he recovered. 

After this visitation Mr. Cook returned to his simple 
life. His income was small, but the widows and sick 
he always helped. His time was never his own ; he 
was often called up, and would be out visiting into the 
night ; on one occasion after midnight the policeman 
heard a man running, and turned his lantern : it was 
the vicar running to a sick man who had sent for him. 
On another occasion, returning home in the evening, 
he found that two persons had been quarrelling: he went 
to their house, and spent two hours in trying to recon- 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 77 

cile them, and did not leave until he had succeeded. 
His sympathy was extraordinary, and no trouble was 
too great if he could serve a friend by it. In 1857 he 
became incumbent of Canvey Island, hoping to get an 
assistant curate, but he could do so only for a time. 
The hot summer of this year was followed by much 
sickness. On Saturday, September 10, he left home 
at midday, and was overtaken by darkness on Canvey 
Island, lost his way, and reached home at ten ; he felt 
ill, but held the three services of Sunday, and after that 
he took to his bed, from which he never rose ; he lin- 
gered in fever till St. Michael's Day. One who was at 
his funeral tells us " there were no dry eyes ; tears for 
him flowed thick and fast. I never saw so many weep, 
nor so worthily." Nobody knows, no one can know, 
how much influence the life of this reader at the West- 
minster Abbey early daily service had on the neighbour- 
hood around him. 



CHAPTER TV. 

WHEN people spoke of the country clergy, and their 
not being altogether up to date in London ways, this 
was quite understood as applying to very few in out-of- 
the-way spots ; indeed, I feel inclined to apologise for 
such speeches when I remember a very unrefined one 
by a London rector of some standing at that time. 
He was in his vestry ready to go in to the Sunday 
evening service, with his four curates around him. A 
visitor who was going to help in the service asked the 
rector if he was going to preach ; he replied, " Oh, 
dear no ; I do not keep dogs to bark and bark myself". 
I am sure no country rector, however far distant from 
the centre of civilisation, would have made such a 
speech as that. 

To return to London ; there were several very im- 
portant centres of the Church Movement, and one 
of the earliest of these was Christ Church, Albany 
Street, built about 1836-7, when dwellers in that 
neighbourhood were looking on in some bewilderment 
at the enormous excavations being made for the cutting 
of the London and North Western Kailway from Eus- 

ton Square to Primrose Hill. We are used to such 

(78) 



RECOLLECTIONS OF OXFORD MOVEMENT. 79 

things now ; but it really did strike young folks with 
alarm to see so much of the bowels of the earth dis- 
placed. Christ Church was the first church built under 
Bishop Blomfield's Metropolitan Church Scheme ; it 
was a semi-classical building, with nothing to attract 
externally, and inside the noble proportions of the 
chancel, and the altar well elevated, were the re- 
deeming points, the altar-piece being a line copy of 
Kaphael's Transfiguration by some well-known painter. 
Plain choir stalls and lectern were added in 1850. Sir 
James Pennethorne was the architect, but in 1867 the 
whole was decorated and re-arranged internally under 
Mr. Butterfield, the renowned church architect, to 
whom the Church of England is certainly indebted for 
many of her finest churches and restorations. The 
first incumbent was the Eev. Wm. Dodsworth, who 
had been for some years minister of Margaret Chapel, 
and a popular preacher there, working his way up on 
the lines of the Church Movement, but without much 
attempt to improve the arrangements of that very 
homely little chapel or its ritual ; he preached there 
now and then in Mr. Oakeley's time, good, simple, and 
thoughtful sermons ; he was originally quite an Evan- 
gelical or Low Churchman, and it was said that he had 
considerable leaning to a body of men then rising into 
notice, but of whom now we do not hear much, being 
chiefly reminded of them by their great church of 
cathedral-like proportions in Gordon Square. I refer 



8o RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

to the Irvingites, or, as they called themselves, the 
Catholic Apostolic Church. Mr. Dodsworth was not 
the only Church of England clergyman attracted by 
this remarkable body of religionists ; and a few words 
about them here may not be out of place. It was a 
time of much progress and stirring of heart, and the 
claims of the Irvingites to supernatural origin were 
sure to attract. The restoration of the actual office of 
the twelve apostles, by the calling of twelve men to 
that dignity, was the main principle of their work, and 
by this restored apostolate the divisions and short- 
comings of Christendom were to be healed. The state- 
ment and proofs of their spiritual claim had been 
officially forwarded to every court in Europe ; certainly 
the mere fact that such a ritual as they then practised 
could be accepted and approved by what was at first 
a small Presbyterian sect was in itself rather miracu- 
lous. It was, of course, easy to construct a handsome 
ritual and a devotional liturgy by using the Eastern 
and Western liturgies and making a good selection ; and 
this was done by them, though many of the members 
averred that the vestments and details were specially 
revealed through the revived apostolic office. One of 
the offices was touching : you might see a father, 
mother, and six children kneeling at the altar rails, 
about to emigrate, joining in prayer, blessed by their 
bishop before they sailed. Their church was then in 
Newman Street, and in the number of their priests it 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 81 

was said that some Church of England clergy were to 
be found ; and it was an undoubted fact that clergy of 
the Church of England had submitted to what was 
called the laying on of the apostles' hands, and it was 
even currently reported that an English rector was 
himself one of their twelve apostles. Mr. Drummond, 
the banker, was one, and several of their priests were 
in business or official positions. One of the best 
known figures in London to be constantly met on the 
way from Newman Street to Euston Square was the 
noble and venerable form of Mr. Heath, the angel or bishop 
in Newman Street. They were not at all an aggres- 
sive people, or anxious to make proselytes : a friend of 
mine in a Government office had a very gentlemanly, 
quiet, well-informed man as his companion in work ; 
it was years before he found out quite accidentally that 
his fellow-clerk was an Irvingite priest. Mr. Hooper, 
the then Eector of Albury, a home or centre of the 
work (where Mr. Portal, of St. Barnabas, was after- 
wards rector), made no secret of his sympathy and 
membership; he published a Treatise on the Revelation 
of St. John, Family Prayers, etc. Mr. Armstrong, 
too, was one of their great preachers, and published 
some volumes of sermons ; Miss Leeson, a well-known 
member, wrote some exquisite poetry, such as " Hymns 
and Scenes of Childhood," and " Songs of Christian 
Chivalry". I cannot, of course, say how far Mr. Dods- 

worth was at one with these worthy people. He 

6 



82 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

worked for ten years in Christ Church, Albany Street, 
made it a thorough centre of Church teaching, and had 
a large congregation ; all was done with a simple 
grandeur, but with very little of advanced ritual. Among 
his curates were Mr. New, Ed. Stuart, W. H. Milman, 
Mr. Gordon, Mr. Morton Shaw, afterwards Eector of 
Eougham, near Bury St. Edmunds, and, for a short 
time, Mr. Cavendish, a nephew of Lord Chesham's, 
and afterwards Eector of Castorton ; in younger days 
he and his brother, who went into the Life Guards, 
were pages to the Queen. His clerical life was a short 
and rather a sad one. Mr. Burgon, afterwards Dean of 
Chichester, often officiated there in those days. 

Mr. Dodsworth published sermons and controversial 
tracts ; and in 1851, concluding that the Church of 
England was involved in the judgments of the Privy 
Council or responsible for them, he seceded from the 
Church, and was afterwards known for the attempted 
replies to Dr. Pusey's famous letter to the Bishop of 
London, which was one of the most perfect and ex- 
haustive defences of Catholic principles in the Church 
of England a real manual of the greatest value for all 
time. We may hope it will be still read : the original 
cause of that letter was one by Mr. Dodsworth to Dr. 
Pusey, in which he reproached him for something like 
lukewarmness about the Gorham judgment, and printed 
expressions from his adapted works. Copies of this 
were distributed in the street outside the Church of 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 83 

St. Barnabas, on the night that Dr. Pusey preached 
there. Christ Church still held to the Church revival, 
and had a career of sound faith and practice under the 
Eev. H. W. Burrows and the present Bishop Festing. 
Later on, a more advanced ritual was, and still is, at 
work in that neighbourhood, in the handsome Gothic 
Church of St. Mary Magdalen, Munster Square, built 
by the munificence of the late Kev. Edward Stuart, 
from the designs of Mr. Carpenter, whose, early death 
was so earnestly deplored by churchmen ; Baron Alder- 
son laid the foundation stone, and other good Church 
laymen attended this church. The very earliest sister- 
hood in the English Church was in Osnaburgh Street, 
close by. Its beginning in 1845 by three or four 
ladies quietly and unostentatiously, was in a house in 
Park Village West, in the parish of Christ Church, 
Albany Street. The house in Osnaburgh Street, which 
is in St. Mary Magdalen's parish, was built afterwards. 
Now that sisterhoods are the largest and best recog- 
nised works in our Church, it is deeply interesting 
to know of this first beginning, of which Miss Sellon's, 
of Devonport, was really an offshoot. A full account 
of the Osnaburgh Street house will no doubt be 
found in the later volumes of Dr. Pusey 's life. Mr. 
Stuart had a most worthy successor in the incumbency 
of St. Mary Magdalen's, Munster Square the Kev. F. 
J. Ponsonby, whose comparatively early death very 
many churchmen have just been mourning. Mr. 



84 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Ponsonby's work and character have earned for him the 
respect and affection of all who were privileged to know 
him. 

This, perhaps, will be a point at which we can refer 
to the story of Margaret Chapel under Mr. Oakeley, the 
successor of Mr. Dodsworth. Mr. Mozley speaks of a 
Mr. Charles Thornton, who had charge, perhaps just 
before Mr. Oakeley. Mr. Thornton was a cousin of 
Dr. Pusey's, a good scholar and able man. It hardly 
comes within my province to tell of the early history 
of this remarkable chapel ; how in 1776, the Rev. 
David Williams occupied it with the object of includ- 
ing in one congregation all earnest and pious men, 
without reference to creed, faith, or doctrine ; this was 
hardly a plan likely to succeed, and it was a failure. 
It would be curious to know how he proposed to suit 
his chapel and services to every one ; it reminds one of 
Mr. Newland's story of the old Devonshire boatman 
who was rowing him across the breakwater at Ply- 
mouth, and pointed out a small chapel, the minister of 
which, he said, had tried several denominations in hope 
of getting a congregation ; if one plan did not succeed 
he tried another, and his last idea was to propitiate the 
Baptists, and he even went so far as to give them a 
huge tub for immersion. Mr. Newland thought " it 
was rather a hopeless plan to try and please every one 
in such matters ". "Aye, sir," said the boatman, 
" that it was : the old gentleman's course to heaven lay 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 85 

north-east by west southerly, and he didn't carry no 
small helm neither." 

This Mr. Williams, of Margaret Chapel it was said 
that it was named after the minister's daughter, Mar- 
garet was the founder of the Literary Fund, and his 
tombstone may be seen in the church of St. Anne, 
Soho. After him came a congregation calling them- 
selves Bereans. Mr. Dodsworth held the chapel for 
some time up to 1837, and it was not so much of a 
centre of work during his time. We read of Mr. 
Philip Pusey, the squire, elder brother of Dr. Pusey, 
attending Margaret Chapel in Mr. Dodsworth's time. 
Mr. Oakeley had been elected Fellow of Balliol in 
1827 ; he had also been made Prebendary of Lich- 
field, and had been Whitehall preacher, publishing his 
volume of sermons preached there, in 1839. In his 
earlier years at Oxford he has been described as an 
elegant and rather dilettante scholar, a musician, much 
at his piano, and avowedly sentimental rather than 
decisive in his religious views ; but the ten years in 
the thick of the Oxford Movement had no doubt given 
him very decided views on religion, and he came to 
London with the express object of carrying out those 
principles, of showing that Anglican ritual could be 
expressive and devotional ; and he gathered round him 
a congregation second to none in London, of good 
standing, and earnest consistent Church principles, who 
rallied round the old chapel, which became a wonder- 



86 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

ful London centre for some years ; a spot to which 
people could point as a proof that the Church Move- 
ment was a vital and real one, not resting in mere 
books, but to be seen and known of all men by its 
works. If one thing had been degraded lower than 
another in past days of neglect it was the public wor- 
ship of Almighty God : so, first and foremost, it was in 
Margaret Chapel that an improvement in this was 
attempted. Yet how little of strict ritual was at first 
really carried out ! scarcely more than we find now in 
nine out of ten parish churches throughout the land ; yet 
what a power the simple, ugly building was, and what 
splendid work for the Church of England was the 
result ; it was a small beginning, indeed, but how it 
grew ! About 1839-45 as you turned, any day, into 
Margaret Street from Wells Street, just before five, the 
hour of daily evensong, you would hear a small, half- 
cracked bell, in a little cot at the top of the chapel 
front gable, hardly louder or more penetrating than the 
blow of the blacksmith's hammer in the forge at the 
back of the chapel, a perpetual accompaniment to the 
week-day services, to which we got quite accustomed 
(that blacksmith's hammer was the only remnant of old 
times that survived at the consecration of the beautiful 
church of All Saints). The chapel bell was ringing, 
and as you neared the doors (one on each side), from 
one of the houses on the opposite side of Margaret 
Street, you might see crossing the road a thin, short, 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 87 

limping figure, with college cap on, dark hair closely 
cropped, good features, bright eyes and square-shaped 
head. This was Frederick Oakeley, minister of the 
chapel. He went in at the right-hand door, and at the 
far end, before going into the little vestry, knelt a few 
moments, as all the clergy did, at the wooden altar-rail, 
which came in a semi-circular form around the altar 
itself. This was the five o'clock evensong, which has 
now been going on for fifty years ; there was then daily 
matins at eight, and early celebrations on Sundays and 
saints' days. This was an ordinary evensong ; but there 
was no mistake about the hearty and unanimous re- 
sponse, the reverent and earnest behaviour. Mr. 
Oakeley, in cassock and surplice, black stole and hood, 
took his place, with one chorister in a surplice by his 
side, at a small desk on the left side (Mr. Willing, 
afterwards organist, and then at the Foundling, was 
that chorister at one time) ; the rest of the choir being 
with Mr. Redhead and the organ at the end gallery. 
One verse of the Psalms was sung by the priest and 
choir- boy, and the other verse by the choir upstairs 
with the congregation. The Psalter was the 'Laudes 
Diurnce, a Gregorian one arranged by Mr. Redhead, 
author and editor of many valuable works of Church 
music, edited by Mr. Oakeley, published by Mr. Toovey ; 
it had a syllabic arrangement that sometimes sounded 
awkwardly, but it had a dear place in the hearts of 
those who used it, and it was then a step in the right 



88 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

direction. On saints' days and their eves it was a 
regular thing to sing the last fourteen verses of Tate 
and Brady's 118th Psalm, " Joy fills the dwelling of 
the just," to a simple melody, which, to use a favourite 
expression of Dr. Gauntlett's, " went like oil ". There 
was no Hymnal then, but special hymns for special times 
were printed on leaflets. Pages of special sermons, 
Advent, Christmas, Lent, Easter, anniversaries, with list 
of additional services and preachers, and the hymns, 
were ready for circulation among the congregation. 
There hardly seemed much to attract people in this ; 
but the chapel was fairly full on all week-days ; many 
of the highest and most learned in Church and State, 
such as Lord Lyttelton, Mr. Gladstone, and Mr. Henry 
Tritton, were among them, and curates of neighbouring 
parishes, with a fair number of poor ; on Sundays it 
was more than full. It was ugly, not to say pain- 
fully so ; picture to yourself a square room, with flat, 
whitewashed roof, two large galleries, and the whole 
area covered with pews, no centre passage but only two 
side ones, the east wall (it was really north) flat and 
plain. In such a place the altar was the only part that 
there was a hope of making decent, and this, with the 
aid of dorsel and flowers at festivals, cross and candle- 
sticks, was all that for some years was attempted ; yet 
the place was loved in spite of its ugliness ; and some 
were ready to say, when at last the old pews were 
swept away, that they even loved the wretched old 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 89 

seats, bad as they were. It was the enthusiasm, the 
spirit of the thing, that carried all before it. Mr. 
Oakeley, whose bright sermons showed the easy finish 
of an elegant scholar, had constantly the presence and 
support of his Oxford friends. I am afraid many of us 
now accustomed to a ritual more in accordance with 
the ornaments rubric, would have thought little of 
the ritual there, so valued by many then. They 
would have seen Mr. Oakeley celebrating in cassock, 
rather long surplice, black stole, and Oxford M.A. 
hood ; and kneeling, one on each side below him, might 
be J. H. Newman and W. G. Ward, in similar dress, 
the latter very conspicuous from his imposing size. 
Many a clergyman, an Oxford man, who had left 
Oxford and taken a country living, attended this hum- 
ble place when he was in London, and went away to 
carry the influence of the inspiriting service of the little 
chapel to his distant country parish ; so that from this 
chapel there was an influence, the extent of which it is 
not easy to measure. Outside, after service, the hearty 
greetings and handshakes were a sight to see ; it was 
like a rallying point for all friends of the movement. 
All was thoroughly English in heart and spirit, the idea 
of merely imitating another branch of the Church 
entered into no one's head. It was as the birthright 
of our own Church that all contended for outward 
beauty, increased reverence, and every scheme for good. 
Very few of the books used were taken from foreign 



go RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

sources; the Psalter we have named. During his 
ministry Mr. Oakeley translated St. Bonaventura's life 
of Christ, a life in which the details of the daily life 
of our Lord in Nazareth, were reverently filled in ; 
an edition of this had been published in 1739, evi- 
dently by an English churchman ; it is not too much 
to say, such was the esprit of the place, that nearly 
every member of the congregation bought a copy of 
this book almost wet from the press. The Devotions 
for Holy Communion contained no words that an honest 
member of the English Church could object to : it was 
much valued and used, and so was the smaller edition 
which followed, edited by Mr. Oakeley's successor ; the 
Prayers for a Blessing on the Building of the New Church^ 
which was a plan in the hearts of all, were part of the 
daily devotions of the people, as was the small book of 
Questions for Self -Examination. Part of the story of 
this chapel can never be written, I mean its inner life, 
the earnestness about the soul and spiritual things, the 
besetting sin broken off for ever, the penitent restored, 
the worldly reclaimed, the humble and persevering 
strengthened and built up, the business man influenced 
to higher things. 

For more than seven years the work prospered, and 
though, from time to time, warnings came of trials and 
troubles in the Church, those in earnest felt that such 
trials were sure to come ; those only escaped them who- 
continued cold and indifferent; and that was the very 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 91 

spirit against which Margaret Chapel, and its round of 
prayer and praise, fast and festival, holy seasons and 
rejoicings, was a perpetual visible protest. Bishop 
Blornfield, in his Charge of 1842, had urged a more 
strict adherence to some of the Church's plainest rules ; 
the party in the Church represented by the Islington 
clergy distinctly rebelled ; to them many parts of the 
Prayer-book were a dead letter, and the Church was a 
Protestant community, in spite of the Catholic creeds, 
calendar, seasons, offices, ordinal, catechism, etc. Then, 
by some it began to be urged that claims to Apostolic 
descent and doctrine alone belonged to the Church of 
Rome ; for this view there was little proof from primi- 
tive times, history and antiquity, to which the Church 
of England referred all her members ; it was found 
impossible to reconcile the modern system of the 
Church of Rome with primitive times, and so new 
theories had to be invented. Between these two par- 
ties poor Bishop Blomfield was sadly troubled. The 
controversy was not gone through without a struggle, 
and Margaret Chapel felt it severely. As we have said, 
Mr. Oakeley was enthusiastic ; he was also chivalrous, 
and took up the cause of his friend Mr. W. G. Ward 
with vigour, and defended his book The Ideal of a 
Christian Church, published by Mr. Toovey in 1844. 
He preached two sermons on the 10th and 17th of 
November, 1844, on " Things dispensable, and things 
indispensable ". After that he published that remark- 



92 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

able letter to a friend called " A claim to hold all 
Eoman Doctrine without teaching it," still trying to 
hold on to the Church in which he knew God had 
placed him. Then, too, was published the pamphlet of 
twenty-four pages, " Selections from a work entitled 
The Ideal of a Christian Church, illustrative of its ten- 
dency to promote Dutifulness to the English Church, 
Unity among her Members, and Charity towards Dis- 
sentients ". But the end was bound to come, and then 
for a few weeks Mr. Oakeley left off officiating, and 
still came to the service, kneeling in one of the end 
pews. It was of this time that Dr. Pusey speaks when 
telling of the pain that Mr. Oakeley's writings gave him, 
and doubting if he had historical knowledge for the part 
he was taking. Dean Church tells the story of his 
quixotic defence of Mr. Ward before the University ; 
he was, as has been said, one who would follow his 
friend or leader in a " Charge of the Light Brigade ". 
The contrast between the thin little minister of Mar- 
garet Chapel, and the large, florid, and bright per- 
sonality of his friend, both standing up before the 
University, was curious but very impressive. And the 
contrast between their future lives was quite as marked : 
the one spent the rest of his life serving a poor con- 
gregation in Islington, limping about the streets in very 
shabby canonicals, eye still bright and voice kind ; Mr. 
Mozley tells us that he would sometimes be induced 
to dine quietly at Lambeth Palace, and talk over old 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 93 

days with another old Fellow of Balliol, Archbishop 
Tait. The other had an estate, Northwood Park, Isle of 
Wight, a happy home, wife and children, and leisure 
for the delights of art, music, and literature. Dean 
Church tells us too, that during the anxious days of 
the condemnation of Mr. Ward's book, Mr. Ward was 
engaged to be married, and that the engagement came 
to the knowledge of his friends, to their great astonish- 
ment and amusement, very soon after the condemna- 
tion. It was said that the lady was a member of the 
congregation of Margaret Chapel, and, to add to the 
romance, that Mr. Ward's first approach to her was on 
behalf of a friend, to whom, of course, the lady was 
unfavourable. Mr. Wingfield, her brother, a Christ 
Church man, and Mr. Ward were described by Mr. 
Bennett in the English Churchman (then the only 
Church organ) as " Subtle Mr. Ward," and " Simple 
Mr. Wingfield " Ward's subtlety in claiming to hold 
all Eoman doctrine, Wingfield's simplicity in accepting 
as the decree of a pope, Sir H. Jenner Fust's judgment 
against the Cambridge round church stone altar. 

It was a long and sad time before Margaret Chapel 
recovered from the effects of Mr. Oakeley's secession ; 
the loss of such men as Bellasis, Hood, Wingfield, Burns, 
Toovey, Baddeley, and others was a serious one, and pres- 
sure was put on many of the congregation to take the step 
that their minister and others had taken. Mr. Upton 
Eichards was Mr. Oakeley's successor ; he had been his 



94 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

curate, and for a short time held also an office in the 
Manuscript Department of the British Museum. He 
was an Exeter College man, nephew of Dr. Eichards, then 
Rector of Exeter College ; and few can nowadays imagine 
the task of keeping that congregation together, and 
carrying on the work of the movement in services, etc., 
which he so bravely undertook. Happily, there were a 
goodly number who held fast to the Church of their 
baptism ; but even with their help Mr. Eichards' post 
was one of infinite labour and anxious care. Simple, 
devout, hopeful and persevering, he held on his way 
through all the distractions and troubles of that time 
and for many years after; and well he deserved the 
love and confidence he won. The building of a noble 
church was kept steadily in view, but in the meantime 
the homely little chapel was transformed ; it was re- 
seated, and a sort of chancel choir and stalls erected, 
and the services gained beauty and strength as time 
went on,, till it was pulled down. The last service at 
the old chapel was an early celebration on Easter 
Monday, 1850, carried out with all the increased beauty 
and dignity of those years under Mr. Eichards. One 
who was there described it as most solemn and pathetic, 
with what beating hearts, what weeping eyes they bend 
to receive there for the last time the blessing of their 
priest ; how full, how fervent did the deep Amen arise 
throughout the building, uttered by every voice, 
responded to by every heart ; lingering long, so loth to 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 95 

die away. Some verses on this occasion by Mrs. Alex- 
ander, author of Hymns for Little Children, are worth 
repeating. 

How many spirits troubled with the chiding 
Of the rough world, have hither turned for rest, 

Like storm-tossed ship awhile at anchor riding, 
On some small haven's quiet breast ? 

How many lips in rapturous devotion, 
Wrought by no outward impulse, here have moved, 

How many hearts can share our hearts' emotion, 
Here meeting with the lost and loved ? 

On All Saints' Day, 1850, the foundation stone of 
the Church of All Saints was laid by Dr. Pusey, 
whose name will ever be treasured for the deepest 
learning and piety, and a life spent in providing good 
and solid resting ground for true Catholic principles 
in the Church of England. On the laying of the 
stone he preached in the temporary chapel in Titchfield 
Street, and there for another nine years the work of 
the old chapel was carried forward ; and on that small 
crowded spot more offerings for the completion of the 
church were made. And as the building opposite pro- 
gressed, so did the building up of every spiritual and 
corporal work of mercy increase and abound. Let 
none think that the reverence and beauty, and minute 
attention to ritual stood alone it rarely does. All 
Saints' Home, with its orphanage, hospital, dispensary, 
etc., began in a small way in 1851, governed by rules 
and statutes allowed by the Bishop of London, and in 



96 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

1856 was more firmly established, dedicated in a 
special service by the Bishop of Oxford, acting for the 
diocesan. It was the wish of the ladies engaged in 
the work that it should be, as far as possible, the 
Church's expression of sympathy for all who are in 
want, or sickness, or sorrow ; by Lent, 1859, there 
were nine sisters, ten old women, twenty-four orphans, 
twenty-two serving girls, and nine incurables. There 
was a pharmacy, a mortuary chapel, etc. I need not 
say that up to the present day the work is still grow- 
ing. Who does not know of its grand convalescent 
home and chapel at Eastbourne, and many other addi- 
tions? By May, 1859, the church, the clergy-house, and 
other houses were completed, and on the 28th it was 
consecrated. Mr. Helmore sang the service, and his 
Manual of Plain Song was used. The Bishop of Lon- 
don (Tait) preached, and in his sermon said that per- 
sonally he preferred a less ornate and elaborate church 
and service ; but if those who loved God as well, if 
not better, than he did, found these things aids to 
devotion, and a means of drawing their hearts from the 
love of this world, it was not for him to refuse it. 
Among the preachers in the octave were the Dean of 
Westminster (Trench), Eev. the Hon. R. Liddell, J. R. 
(afterwards Bishop) Woodford, R. M. Benson, T. Yard, 
and T. T. Carter. I need not carry this sketch beyond 
the death of Mr. Richards in 1873 ; it would be vain 
to attempt any adequate description of his life's work 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 97 

and devotion, and how deeply it was appreciated by 
many hundreds to whom he ministered. In appear- 
ance he was slight and fair, with an ever-cheerful ex- 
pression, and not unlike in features to his great and 
life-long friend Dr. Pusey, who was always his staunch 
helper in times of trouble and anxiety. Other valued 
friends were constant attendants at the church. I name 
a few : The Bishop of Brechin, Lord Glasgow, Kev. R. 
J. Spranger, W. J. Blew ; Mr. Walker, the well- 
known engraver ; Mr. Tritton, one of the most munifi- 
cent donors to the church ; Kev. G. A. Trevor, once 
Rector of Rokeley, was mid-day celebrant for years; 
Mr. Lyall, of Backchurch ; Rev. J. C. Crompton, who 
edited the Proper Prefaces with the old music ; Lord 
Forbes, Mr. G. E. Street, Mr. Butterfield, and his 
churchwarden, Mr. William Holland, and many others. 
Then therew ere his fellow-helpers and curates, T. W. 
Perry, C. Gutch, and last, but by no means least, 
the Rev. Chas. Christie (brother of Albany Christie, 
formerly fellow of Oriel), a man of only one 
curacy, except a short time at St. Thomas's, Oxford, 
and Lewknor. All honour and praise to such men ; 
there are very few of them I Mr. Richards had a 
worthy successor in Mr. Berdmore Compton. In 1880- 
81 a Conference of Clergy was held at All Saints, 
on the subject of ritual, which resulted in a valuable 
pamphlet on the various interpretations of the rubrics 

of the Prayer-book. 

7 



98 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

A short walk across Cavendish Square to Baker Street 
brings us to a much more pretentious looking building 
than that in Margaret Street, namely, Portman Chapel, 
the interior of which had been made more comely by 
the Eev. W. J. Early Bennett, M.A., of Christ Church, 
Oxford, who was the minister for a few years till the 
church of St. Paul, Knightsbridge, was finished in 1843. 
At the time he was but little over thirty, and full of 
that strength, courage, and vigour for which he was 
so long distinguished. At Portman Chapel he must 
have aroused the fashionable folks from their easy, 
luxurious lives, and stirred them with his pointed and 
scholarly sermons. There was, of course, but little that 
could be called ritual, but all things were done care- 
fully and reverently ; the pulpit was not put before the 
altar, the prayers were not read to the people, etc., as 
they were then in so many proprietary chapels. Mr. 
Bennett was succeeded by Mr. D. A. Beaufort, who 
gave the font to St. Paul's, Knightsbridge ; afterwards 
he was chaplain to Mr. Eliot Warburton, at Arley ; at 
Portman Chapel in his time Mr. Palmer, of Worcester 
College, author of the Origines Liturgicce, preached, 
referring in his sermon to the martyrdom of King 
'Charles I. In 1843 Mr. Bennett began his eight years' 
work at the church and parish of St. Paul's, Knights- 
bridge, which was for a long time to be the centre of so 
many struggles to maintain the showing forth of Church 
principles before the world of London. Trials of all 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 99 

kinds began very soon : even at the consecration the 
bishop ordered the removal of an oak eagle supporting 
the bible desk; and Mr. Hodgson, rector of the mother 
church, St. George's, Hanover Square, read the service 
facing the people, ignoring the side prayer desk. The 
choir were not in surplices till Advent, 1846. It was 
a handsome church, built from the designs of Mr. 
Gundy, and it was not long before Mr. Bennett made 
his mark, and a very large congregation were regular 
attendants at St. Paul's. Mr. Bennett was not only 
a good preacher, but he was a writer of numerous 
works, putting the Tractarian Theology into a most 
popular and readable form. His two series of Letters 
to my Children, published about 1850, on religious and 
moral subjects, were admirable specimens of such 
works. There were also volumes of Sermons, Essays 
on the Prayer-look, on the Holy Eucharist, the Church's 
Broken Unity, besides the Old Church Porch, and a 
variety of short works and pamphlets as occasion 
arose. He had a wonderful gift of attracting people to 
himself and his cause ; one of the most remarkable was 
the lady who wrote Tales of Kirkleck, Tales of a Lon- 
don Parish, Alice Beresford, Lives of the Fathers, etc., 
etc., all of which were published anonymously as 
edited by the Eev. W. J. E. Bennett. He also edited 
Fene'loris Counsels. He was a thorough parish priest, 
guide, and friend, and had the gift of organising too. 
Some of his curates at St. Paul's were men of great 



ioo RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

ability : Mr. Cowie, now Dean of Exeter, Mr. De Gex, 
C. I. Smith, Archdeacon of Jamaica, afterwards Eector 
of Erith, author of a standard book on Synonyms ; 
George Nugee, author of Sermons on the Cross, and 
Sermons on Holy Women; H. Stretton (afterwards at 
Hixon, in Staffordshire), joint author with Sir W. H. 
Cope of the Visitatio Infirmorum, and author of a 
series of sermons on the acts of St. Mary Magdalen. 
In the preface to the Visitatio, is a reference to two 
young friends, candidates for the holy order of deacon ; 
these were Eandolph Payne, so many years at St. 
Paul's, Brighton, and J. L. Fish, Eector of St. Mar- 
garet's Pattens, City. Mr. Bennett's handsome personal 
presence and dignified and courageous bearing through 
all his troubles will be remembered still by many who 
knew and valued him, recalled, too, by the very beauti- 
ful engraving, after Eichmond's portrait, a companion 
to that excellent series of which those of Manning, 
Samuel Wilberforce, Selwyn, F. D. Maurice, J. H. 
Newman, etc., etc., were notable examples. At Easter 
and Christmas the church was more than crowded ; and 
on one well-remembered Easter Sunday the number 
was very large, although there had been several early 
celebrations. The vicar knew that a great many (some 
coming from a distance) would communicate, and so 
the long service would be unusually trying ; on that 
occasion he went up into the pulpit and gave out his 
text, " Christ is risen ". " This is my text and this is. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 101 

my sermon. Now, to God the Father," etc., etc. But 
Mr. Bennett was not one to be satisfied with a church 
filled with the rich and well-to-do, when there was a 
part of the parish in which small streets and crowded 
houses were the state of things near the riverside. It 
was the plain duty of the well-to-do who enjoyed the 
privileges and services of a church like St. Paul's to 
provide a church free and open for the poor of their 
own parish ; and he set to work with this object, and 
about 1846-9 the small but beautiful church of St. 
Barnabas, in Church Street, was built, and consecrated 
by the Bishop of London on St. Barnabas' Day, 1850. 
Dr. Pusey and other well-known clergy preached. The 
sermons were all published in a memorable volume : the 
Bishops of London and Oxford, Dr. Mill, Keble, Man- 
ning, Sewell, Gresley, Paget, Neale, Eden (afterwards 
Primus of the Scottish Church), Kichards, Kennaway, 
Henry Wilberforce, Mr. Bennett and his brother 
Frederick. Few could compare with Air. Bennett as a 
preacher ; and one of his sermons, I think on the Day of 
Judgment, was said by Manning to be the finest he 
ever heard. A work for Christ and His people was 
begun which is still carried on and prospering. At St. 
Barnabas Mr. Bennett mostly worked and officiated ; 
and feeling that in a new church a somewhat brighter 
and more ornate ritual was fairly allowable, without 
reference to what they were already accustomed to at 
St. Paul's, he carried matters out himself. All this 



102 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

was not done without opposition and dislike on the part 
of the Puritans. The popular mind was exercised, and 
what were called the St. Barnabas Riots took place. 
They were very mild compared with another notorious 
riot in the East of London, part of the story of which I 
hope to tell in another chapter, and chiefly consisted of 
hisses and tokens of disapproval when the altar lights 
were lighted, and when Mr. Bennett ascended the 
pulpit in his surplice. It is well to keep in mind how 
little then there was of what could be called ritual 
black stole, surplice and hood, with lights and east- 
ward position, were sufficient to excite these angry 
feelings. Under the excellent and well-remembered 
churchwarden, Mr. Sutherland Grseme, of Grsemeshill, 
Orkney, a goodly band of gentlemen was organised as 
special constables, who attended early and sat or knelt 
behind the seats at the west end, and so protected the 
worshippers from being molested. It was a scene not 
to be forgotten as Mr. Bennett ascended the pulpit and 
stood still till the hissing somewhat abated : he looked 
the very embodiment of a brave determined man and 
priest, one who knew his own faithfulness, and was not 
to be hissed down ; he made himself both heard and 
felt. After the sermon, at the offertory sentences, Sir 
Frederick Ouseley, then a deacon and curate of St. 
Barnabas, the future church musician and founder of 
St. Michael's, Tenbury, stood at the screen with the 
alms-dish, quite calm and undisturbed. A touching 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 103 

remembrance comes to one's mind. Those were the 
last few Sundays of Archdeacon Manning's life in 
the Church of England. He was living in town, and 
had for some time left off all duty, but he still attended 
St. Barnabas, and might be seen sitting close by the 
organ and looking at Mr. Bennett, as he was patiently 
standing in the pulpit, with an expression that one 
could almost interpret thus : " Well, how long are you 
going to carry on this battle, this hopeless work of 
defending and vindicating your unhappy Church ? For 
myself I despair of it, and am leaving it." Not so Mr. 
Bennett ; though he might be driven from his post, his 
work for the Church of England was lifelong. Though 
his work in the parish might be over, the result of that 
work lasted on and has been seen for years since that 
time. The churchwarden, Mr. Sutherland Graeme, is 
still living with his son and his son's wife, Margaret, 
daughter of the late Dr. Neale, and their children ; and 
now at the age of 86, in his enforced rest from all 
bodily labour, is as enthusiastic and interested as ever 
in the Church and her welfare, and recalls early events 
with unfailing energy and pleasure.* 

The laymen of the parish were many of them as 
earnest as the vicar, and ready to help in every way ; 
letters to the Bishop of London (Blomfield) were 
numerous and pointed. A series by Mr. Earn say, a 
thorough churchman and scholar, were among the most 
* Mr. Sutherland Grseme died since this was written. 



104 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

able, and the Tractarian standing-points well argued 
out; but they were not all published. Mr. Bennett 
was not one to give up his position and his work till all 
had been tried, and every effort for peace had been 
made ; but the opposition current was too strong even 
for this unusually strong man strong in his sense of 
truth and justice and in his allegiance to the Church. 

After a time the last appeal was made, and his 
famous pamphlet was published, and its modest title 
was A Plea for Toleration a plea that the High 
Churchman and his honest interpretation of the Book 
of Common Prayer, its rubrics, offices, etc., should be 
at least tolerated, put up with, allowed a place, a fair 
field and no favour. How different in tone and spirit 
to those who opposed him, who said, as it were, Our low 
standard is the only true one, and we will go to law to 
force all men down to that! Their successors in our 
day propose to undo the wonderful Church work, life, 
influence, and literature of the last fifty years by a little 
fresh law, a few more Acts of Parliament, giving less 
power to bishops, and all power to the aggrieved 
parishioner. Some would almost be inclined to feel 
that this party, who would force all men down to their 
own standard, and yet who claim the liberty to omit 
and ignore nine-tenths of the Prayer-book, should be 
the party pleading for toleration. Some one once 
wrote some Church nursery rhymes, and concluded with 
this moral : 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 105 

There once was a prince so conceited 
He would have all men think as he did, 

That one si-zed shoe 

Every man should make do, 
That prince he was soon superseded. 

But in those days the opposing forces were too 
strong. Mr. Bennett had been driven from his post in 
1851, as has been said, by the prime minister, who 
had temporal authority ; by the bishop, who had 
spiritual authority ; and by the Times and the mob, 
who had no authority. Probably, Mr. Bennett never 
expected that his resignation would be accepted by the 
bishop ; and attempts were made by friends to dissuade 
him from acting on it, owing to some technical irregu- 
larity, but he pleaded his honour. The storm was the 
outcome of the " Durham Letter" by Lord John Rus- 
sell, and the bishop's " Histrionic " Charge. On the day 
that it announced the resignation the Times began a 
leader thus, " Protestantism has won its spolia opima 
at the gates of St. Barnabas". (Can Thomas Mozley 
have written that ? ) Scanty spoils ! for now the parish 
has four churches with a much more advanced ritual, 
instead of two, to say nothing of the magnificent work 
at Frome, and Sir Frederick Ouseley's work at Ten- 
bury. Some years after, as a charitable answer to the 
Plea for Toleration, Mr. Bennett's doctrine of the 
Eucharist was attacked in Sheppard v. Bennett, when 
it was decided that teaching an objective real and 
spiritual presence was not contrary to the doctrine of 



io6 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

the Church of England ; the Church Association ap- 
pealed, but their appeal was dismissed. Sheppard was 
a Frome cloth worker, "shepherd's plaid" was said to have 
been named after him ; his son became one of the 
Cowley Fathers ! During this controversy leaflets with 
short extracts from the Tracts for the Times or the 
writings of the Tractarians, were printed and distri- 
buted to the people as they went out of church. An 
old churchman used to say of such folk, " Ah, they 
hate Tracts which they never read, but they love 
ex-Tracts which they manufacture themselves ". 

Mr. Bennett's last pamphlet was a Farewell Letter 
to his Parishioners, one of the most touching and 
pathetic letters that was ever written; it not only 
affected his parishioners, who felt what it was to be 
deprived of their priest, guide, friend, and counsellor ; 
but it affected many who knew little or nothing of the 
writer. One instance of this I will quote from the 
admirable life of Charles Lowder, whom it influenced 
to begin his work in London, and who worked for 
some time at St. Barnabas. He remembers well, as 
curate of a country town in Gloucestershire, in 1851, 
reading one evening by the fireside the account of the 
farewell of the incumbent of St. Paul and St. Barnabas,, 
the touching words which he spoke, and the sad leave- 
taking of his much-loving flock. The whole history 
was not to be read carelessly or reflected upon without 
many burning thoughts. Those which arose in his 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 107 

miud were of deep sorrow for the parish which had 
lost so devoted a priest ; of prayer that his place might 
be supplied by one who would faithfully carry on his 
work; and of ardent longing that, if it were God's will, 
he might be permitted to take a part, however humble, 
in aiding such an object. The last service at St. 
Barnabas under Mr. Bennett was the Holy Eucharist, 
on Lady Day, 1851. At the close the choir and clergy 
all went out by the west door singing Super flumina, as 
they had sung corning in at the opening, Exsurgat Deus. 
Then all went into the dining hall, and the choir sang 
Weldon's anthem, " In Thee, Lord, have I put my 
trust ". That was the finish, and it was most touching. 
Cosby White (not then curate) and others were in 
tears. Mr. Skinner, as Mr. Liddell's curate, preached 
on the following Sunday in black gown, a prayer desk 
having been set up outside the screen. The alms, gifts, 
and oblations, made at the offertory at St. Paul's, are 
worth recording from Easter, 1846, to Easter, 1847 
(there were no evening collections), they were 6641 
11s. 4d. ; one day's offering for the building was 
2153 17s. Id., the largest single offering 1000 from 
a penitent. Sisters of Charity soon came to St. Barna- 
bas, among them Miss Law, daughter of the Recorder 
of London, and Miss Hayes, sister of the publisher. 

In 1852 Mr. Bennett was presented to the living of 
Frome Selwood, in Somersetshire, by the Marchioness 
of Bath, but his persecution did not cease ; the presen- 



io8 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

tation was brought before the House of Commons, and 
it was there urged that he was not a fit and proper person 
to hold the living. Such a proposal could hardly be 
carried even in those days, and it failed. Mr. Bennett 
spent the rest of his life, thirty-four years, in Frome ; 
and the restoration and rebuilding of that magnificent 
church will ever be a memorial of him, and the ser- 
vices and work of the parish were in accord with the 
splendid church, known far and wide for costly magni- 
ficence ; on it he had expended his own private fortune. 
He had outlived all opposition, and on his death in 
1886, aged 84, his funeral was attended by 500 of his 
parishioners. Sir Frederick Ouseley's sisters and others 
followed Mr. Bennett to Frome, and worked with him 
there. He was not often away from his parish, but 
was ever ready to help others ; he preached and pub- 
lished two sermons at the re-opening of Holy Trinity, 
Bordesley, Birmingham, the scene of Dr. Oldknow's 
and Mr. Enraght's labours ; and also kindly came to 
preach at St. George's-in-the-East during the riots. 

The record of the two churches of St. Paul and St. 
Barnabas after 1851 was one of many troubles ; the 
trials and judgments have been printed, and the firm 
and noble stand through them all made by Mr. Liddell 
is well within the memory of churchmen ; the incon- 
sistencies and contradictions in some of these judg- 
ments are well set forth in that very learned series of 
" Privy Council Tracts " published by Mr. Pickering. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 109 

The workers at St. Barnabas now no doubt reverence 
the names of those, both living and departed, who 
steered the Church through those early troublous times 
Mr. Skinner, so solemn, yet ever gentle and kind ; 
Mr. Lowder, the saintly, fearless and self-sacrificing, 
both of whose biographies will, it is hoped, cheer and 
strengthen many a churchman for years to come. 
Then come the names of Cosby White, Ashley Gibson, 
Charles Lyford, and a host of good and true if we had 
space to record them. One great point is that the 
work in these two churches goes forward and ever for- 
ward ; and we have but lately read of the enlargement 
of St. Paul's, a chancel and many beautiful additions, 
with an increase of life and work in the Church, the 
ritual, music, and devotion, under the care of Mr. Mon- 
tague Villiers, Mr. Baden Powell, and others. Church 
folks may take heart and thank the great Head of the 
Church for the example of such men as Mr. Bennett 
and Mr. Liddell. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE City of London in the early days of the Church 
Movement was almost the last spot where we should 
expect its influence to be felt, at least in any practical 
way. The number of large churches all along the 
chief streets were impregnable fortresses of old-fashioned 
ways and customs, and in many of them the customs 
were perfectly unauthorised, merely a following of those 
who had gone before, keeping up traditions as to ritual 
and ceremonies some of which were anything but edify- 
ing. Walking from west to east, who can say aught 
against the eminent respectability of the churches of 
St. George, Hanover Square ; St. James, Piccadilly ; 
St. Martin-in-the-Fields ; St. Clement Danes ; St. Dun- 
stan, St. Bride, St. Mary-le-bow, St. Michael and St. 
Peter, Cornhill ; St. Andrew, Undershaft ; St. Botolph, 
Aldgate ? For many years after 1833 the Tractarian 
Movement had not much effect on this solid array of 
imposing buildings. Money was certainly spent in 
adornment, as in the case of St. Michael's, Cornhill, 
where profusion of alabaster, marbles, carving, and 
stained glass made it a place to visit and admire ; 

but, in spite of such beauty, the place was dead and 

(no) 



RECOLLECTIONS OF OXFORD MOVEMENT, in 

cold ; there was little stirring of life and power. A 
visit to that church just after the completion and orna- 
mentation was rather depressing : one especial point 
showed at once a want of something the chiefest ordi- 
nance of our Church was not honoured, the old altar 
table was not raised or enlarged, and had its old dingy 
velvet covering the one thing unimproved amidst all the 
surrounding beauties. The architect was the late Sir 
G. Gilbert Scott, and it was supposed that he was 
responsible. Curiously enough, he heard some remarks 
on it. Travelling outside the Harnpstead omnibus one 
day was Mr. G. G. Scott, and just behind him were 
two enthusiastic young churchmen, who had been to 
visit the church and were loudly deploring the want 
of dignity in the chief place of honour in St. Michael's : 
they were told afterwards who their travelling com- 
panion was, and did not seem at all in a mood to 
apologise for their strong expressions. But, like that 
select parish of Islington, the city was surrounded with 
many tokens of the new life that was then stirring. St. 
Saviour's, Southwark, was even then, in its sad condi- 
tion, dear to the hearts of all Church folk as the 
resting-place of one of England's most saintly bishops 
(Andrewes), whose Book of Private Devotions was then 
and is still the manual in very many households. It 
was, quite early in the movement, printed in some six 
or eight sizes and editions, first by Dr. Newman as one 
of the Tracts for the Times, and then in several forms 



ii2 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

published by Mr. Parker, one by the S.P.C.K., one by 
Mr. Masters, and lastly one in a small portable form by 
Mr. Eivington, edited by Canon Liddon, for special 
use by the revered Bishop of Salisbury (Hamilton) 
through his long last illness. How many would then 
have rejoiced if they could have known that in the 
present day St. Saviour's was likely to become a real 
cathedral, restored to something of its early form and 
beauty ? The City's own cathedral of St. Paul was 
not eventually to be behind in the work of the revival ; 
and though for the most part preaching and teaching 
were the ways in which the beginnings were set forth, 
they led on and forwards to more outward and visible 
beauty in worship and service. Not very far from St. 
Saviour's is the parish church of St. Mary's, Sewing- 
ton, or Newington Butts as it was called. Very soon 
after the Church Movement began there were two 
curates who both did good work there : one was the Eev. 
W. J. Irons, afterwards Vicar of Brompton, and Prebend- 
ary of St. Paul's, a theologian and writer of some emin- 
ence. At Newington he was quite a young man, and 
as a preacher was soon well known ; his was a striking 
personal appearance, long fair hair, high forehead, and 
large but fine features and bright blue eyes ; and judg- 
ing from his after work in preaching and writing, it is 
not a matter of surprise to know that Newington 
Church was full. He was the son of the Eev. Joseph 
Irons, also a great preacher, but among the Dissenters 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 113 

of pronounced Calvinistic tenets, who thundered forth 
the terrors of his creed at Grove Chapel, Camberwell, 
from 1818 to 1852, not very far from Newington 
Church : the story went that the carriages of those who 
came to hear the father and the son reached a long 
way, and at times got awkwardly mixed. Dr. W. J. 
Irons became a foremost theologian and writer on the 
controversies of the day ; he was also much valued as 
a parish priest and a careful and wise adviser. Some 
of his works were of more than common interest : an 
elaborate review of the Court of Arches and Privy 
Council Judgments, with notes and comments, and a 
reply to the Rev. W. Goode, on The Whole Doctrine of 
Final Causes, on The Holy Catholic Church, Ecclesiastical 
Jurisdiction, on The Eoyal Supremacy, in reply to Mr. 
Maskell, with some useful smaller works, such as The 
Christian Servant's Book, and lastly his beautiful trans- 
lation of the Dies Tree, in Hymns Ancient and Modern, 
which will live as long as hymns are sung. His fellow- 
curate at Newington was the Rev. J. Fuller Russell, 
B.C.L., afterwards perpetual curate of St. James's, 
Enfield Highway, and Vicar of Greenhithe, a writer 
arid also a poet, well known in after years as the owner 
of a splendid liturgical library, and some very fine 
paintings of the schools of Albert Durer and Lucas van 
Leyden. Mr. Russell was not, like Dr. Irons, a great 
preacher, but he was ever most earnest in the move- 
ment and ready to help it forward in every way, and a 

8 



ii4 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

genial and kind friend. A most interesting letter, 
1836, from Mr. Fuller Russell, when a young Cambridge 
man, very earnestly wishing to restore much of the 
disused ritual of the Church, and Dr. Pusey's reply, 
urging above all that restored outward worship should 
be genuine and real, also the account of his and Dr. 
Irons' visit to Dr. Pusey, at Oxford, will be found in 
Dr. Pusey's life. Among Mr. Fuller Eussell's works 
were Anglican Ordinations Valid, in reply to Dr. Ken- 
rick, Lays concerning the Early Church, The Judgment 
of the Anglican Church on Scripture, and a valuable 
compilation entitled Hierurgia Anglicana, documents 
and extracts illustrative of the ritual of the Church of 
England after the Reformation. In this same neigh- 
bourhood much more work was ere long to be done. 
At St. George's, Camberwell, Mr. Smith was a good, 
though old-fashioned High Churchman, and in memory 
of his long ministry the noble chancel just added to St. 
George's was built. Mr. Going's excellent work at St. 
Paul's, Lorrimore Square, is within the memory of us 
all, his earliest work on that side of the water being 
the chaplaincy of Price's Candle Factory : he was the 
friend of the Rev. W. B. Atkins, of St. Anne's, Soho, 
about whom I spoke in a former chapter. Mr. Goul- 
den's work in the very worst slums of South London 
must be named here. Bishop Thorold and Bishop 
Davidson have vividly pictured to us the needs of 
South London. It is not much further on to St. Peter's, 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 115 

Vauxhall, where Mr. Herbert has given his life work, 
and laboured with great and untiring zeal among the 
lower and lower middle classes. 

On the other side, outside the circle of the city, we 
come to one of the earliest centres of the movement in 
St. Matthew's, City Eoad, begun by Mr. Howard, and 
carried on by Mr. Lawrell, Mr. Baird, and their suc- 
cessors. This church was well placed on the route so 
thronged from the City to Islington and Highbury. 
With a simple ritual and very hearty choral services, 
St. Matthew's was always full ; and one special point 
most worthy of notice was that in the regular congre- 
gation a very large proportion of young men would 
always be found. St. Philip's, Clerkenwell, was a 
thorough working centre of the revival ; and those who 
were privileged to know the Eev. Warwick K. Wroth, 
the incumbent, will understand the beauty and in- 
fluence of such a life as his. St. Philip's, Clerkenwell, 
was not a good specimen of a sacred building, but the 
very best was made of it that could be made, and the 
sanctuary, altar, and quasi-chancel were lovingly cared 
for and adorned. Under the untiring energy of Mr. 
Wroth and his curates and an earnest body of lay 
helpers, the work of building up people in faith and 
practice went forward ; and in such an unpromising 
building and neighbourhood the amount of good work 
was most encouraging. Mr. Wroth was tall and very 
thin, and delicate-looking, with hair iron-grey early in 






n6 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

life; but he worked on while strength lasted, living 
close to his church, in Baker Street, Granville Square, 
and died at his post, leaving a most loving memory in 
the hearts of all his people : he published five sermons 
on the Old Testament types of Holy Baptism, 1859. 
His brother was sometime Vice-Consul at Constanti- 
nople, and died in the midst of his work there in 
November, 1861. I give an extract from Mr. Wroth's 
letter to a friend, in reply to his condolence : 

" Very many thanks to you for your kind sympathy, 
and the beautiful book you sent [Manual for Mourners, 
Masters, 1848]. It was a real comfort, and my father,, 
to whom I lent it, said he found it a great help in 
enabling him to bear this heavy blow ; we were so 
reckoning on my dear brother's return that the blow 
came all the heavier. A letter from the Chaplain of 
the Embassy, however, gives us great hope that his end 
there was a blessed one. It comforts us greatly that 
he died at his post doing his duty. The kindness and 
sympathy of the people at Constantinople has been 
most touching ; you will be interested to read the 
account of his death and funeral in the Levant Herald ; 
the Times also had a kind notice of him, and speaks of 
the regret felt by the entire community for his loss. 
Before the establishment of the new Court justice had 
seldom been done at Constantinople, and at first it was 
not palatable ; but it is cheering to find how if right is. 
done, in the long run it will win the respect of all. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 117 

" P.S. Let me get out of your debt for my sub- 
scription to the Anti-Pew Society which you paid for 
me." 

This postscript reminds me that Mr. Wroth had 
determined to make his church free from pew-rents, a 
course requiring no little courage and sacrifice in those 
days. In this and all other parts of his work he had 
the strong and staunch support and friendship of Mr. 
Brett, the well-remembered surgeon of Stoke Newing- 
ton, of whom we have much to say further on. 
Mr. Brett's known opposition to pews and pew-rents 
called forth one of Dr. Littledale's witty nursery 

rhymes : 

A surgeon there was at Stoke Newington, 
Who never would have any pewing done ; 
If the church wasn't free, 
He exclaimed, " Oh ! dear me, 
Those boxes I soon must be hewing down ". 

We pass by Christ Church, New North Eoad, Hox- 
ton, where the Rev. Wm. Scott was for some years 
working; he was a clever writer and editor in the 
Tractarian cause. One of his curates was a Mr. Kose, 
a fair man, with hair parted down the middle, who 
sang the Litany in lavender kid gloves ! He gave up 
his orders, and became the famous comic author and 
reciter, Arthur Sketchley ; many of us have laughed 
heartily at " Mrs. Brown " and her various droll adven- 
tures. They seldom referred to Church matters, except 
on one occasion when she expressed her surprise at the 



u8 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

display of metal work, stained glass, embroidery, etc., 
at the Great Exhibition, exclaiming, " Is it church ? I 
don't mind, only let me know ; is it church ? " Not 
far off at St. Barnabas, Homerton, built by Mr. Joshua 
Watson, the Kev. C. J. Black and C. J. Daniel did 
excellent work. 

Let us enter the sacred boundary of the City of Lon- 
don by Charterhouse Square, then a really quiet sheltered 
spot, all three gates closed at night, with watchmen, 
and the curfew regularly rung from the old turret in 
the school. The Square garden was carefully kept, but 
the turf there could not compare with that in the mas- 
ter's garden inside the school walls, which was quite 
an oasis in the City desert. Archdeacon Hale was 
then master, and also Eector of St. Giles's, Cripplegate. 
When some friends of mine went to reside in that old 
City Square he very kindly offered them seats in the 
Charterhouse Chapel on Sundays ; but two or three visits 
were all that they could manage : the very building 
and pews were anything but conducive to reverence of 
body or mind ; and the old pensioners, scholars, and Dr. 
Saunders, the headmaster (afterwards Dean of Peter- 
borough, whose children have just erected a reredos 
to his memory there), did not do much in that way, or 
to raise the whole tone of the service. John Hullah, 
then organist, had not much chance of brightening the 
service, as there was as little as possible for him to do. 
The service might be almost as dreary as Beresford 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 119 

Hope describes that at the chapel of Harrow School in 
his day. Mrs. Stone, the matron, was always kind and 
much beloved. The master was always very courteous, 
and spoke often to my friends ; he heard afterwards 
that they were regular attendants at St. Bartholomew's, 
Moor Lane: and next time he met them, he said, 
" Well, I always considered myself a High Churchman, 
but I don't know what to call myself now ; I hear that 
you have most wonderful ceremonies there ". Com- 
pared with some of our churches now, it was not much 
after all. St. Botolph's, Aldersgate; Christ Church, 
Newgate Street ; St. Anne and St. Agnes ; St. Bartholo- 
mew the Great, Smithfield, and St. Sepulchre, all had 
one type of service, with huge pews in which you were 
buried ; but certainly the splendid organ playing of Mr. 
Cooper at the latter church, and the singing of his 
trained charity children, were admirable, and it was 
also a treat to hear his out-voluntary on Sunday even- 
ing, to which many would hasten after leaving their 
own service; the "Dead March" in "Saul" was a 
wonder to hear, and his Evening Hymn accompaniment 
something quite thrilling; it would have thrown 
out singers less carefully trained. As to St. Thomas's, 
Charterhouse, though it was somewhat more bright 
and modern, Mr. Eogers, now Rector of Bishopsgate, 
was much too busy with the great Golden Lane Ragged 
and other Schools to give much attention to ritual and 
Church services ; we are bound to say that his schools 



120 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

were a great success for many years. The Square was 
a favourite residence, and several of the City clergy 
lived there. One rather famous man may be mentioned 
here at No. 33, the Eev. Wm. Goode, then Eector 
of St. Antholin's, one of the fiercest opponents of 
the Church Movement. He came of a Puritan stock, 
his father before him having been curate to W. Ko- 
maine at the church of St. Andrew by the Wardrobe, 
Blackfriars, to which rectory he succeeded in after 
years. He was a voluminous writer, and his life was 
written by this son. Mr. Goode was the Puritan cham- 
pion, and was then the most, I had almost said the only 
really learned man among the ultra-Evangelical party ; 
he was always ready with huge book or pamphlet to do 
battle against the Tractarian leaders. He wrote on the 
Baptismal Controversy, replied to Tract XC. on the 
Real Presence, against Dr. Pusey, Archdeacon Denison, 
Eobert Wilberforce, and others, and _ maintained the 
validity of the Scotch and foreign non-Episcopal 
Churches. In those days the Puritans were patronised, 
and one good living after another was bestowed upon 
Mr. Goode. From St. Antholin's he went to All 
Hallows the Great, Thames Street ; thence to St. Mar- 
garet's, Lothbury; and thence to the Deanery of Ripon. 
Mr. Goode was a familiar figure in the City till 1856. 
He was of middle height, thin, pale, dark hair, and 
very lame ; he had always a sad, solemn face, caused 
perhaps by a great domestic affliction. He seemed to 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 121 

live much alone, and personally had no power or in- 
fluence. The Charterhouse boys would sometimes say, 
" What a pity it is that Goode isn't better," that was 
their little joke. But Mr. Goode might write and 
declaim on paper to little avail The time was at hand 
when the writings of the Tractarians, the essays, tracts, 
lectures, hymns, poems, devotional works, etc., were to 
enter into the daily use and life of the people, to be 
carried out and put into practice. The exhortations to 
holiness, to reverence, to devotion and worship and 
obedience to the Church rules were to be made real 
to be lived. The Church, so perfect on paper, in Prayer- 
book, in canons, and documents, was to become a reality 
a daily guide and rule of life : a Catholic revival in 
books and on paper only would have roused very little 
opposition ; but such a revival in act and deed through- 
out the length and breadth of the land was a much 
more formidable thing in the eyes of the worldly, the 
careless, and indifferent. 

On the west side of this old City Square lived the 
Eev. W. Denton, who had in 1850 taken the living of 
St. Bartholomew's, in Moor Lane, a turning about 
half-way up Fore Street. This was a copy of the old 
church of St. Bartholomew by the Exchange, one of 
Wren's churches pulled down to make room for Mr. 
Tite's Eoyal Exchange. The materials were sold for 
483, and a church was built in this, one of the crowded 
parts of Cripplegate and Moorfields, where a church 



122 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

was much needed. The font, pulpit, and all the fine 
old oak were used, but otherwise the new building was 
not thought to much resemble the old one. The tomb 
of Miles Coverdale was transferred to the church of 
St. Magnus, London Bridge. The new church was 
completed about 1850 ; and Mr. Denton was the first 
vicar, an Oxford man, well up in the literature of the 
Church Movement, a scholar and divine, who in after 
years wrote valuable commentaries on the Epistles and 
Gospels, the Lord's Prayer, works on Servia and the 
Servian Church, etc. Stirring sermons by himself and 
friends, and frequent services, especially at Advent 
and Lent, were at once the order of the day ; and 
though a student and a lover and collector of books, 
he felt deeply the responsibility of his parish charge, 
and set himself to bring the Church and the Church's 
call into the lives of his people. In 1852 he arranged 
for a series of twenty-three sermons, one for every day 
in Advent, and they were printed in a volume after- 
wards. Mr. Denton' s few words of introduction will 
best tell his hopes and object : " Various reasons have 
led to the printing of this volume ; but chiefly the hope 
that this attempt to avail ourselves of holy seasons as 
calls to repentance, and a deeper fulfilment of the 
duties of practical Christianity, may lead the way to 
more systematic efforts to evangelise the neglected 
masses of this metropolis. The shopkeeper is busier as 
Christmas draws on ; trade and worldly business of all 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 123 

kinds have their seasons of greater gain and intense 
labours, and must the Church alone stand all day long 
in the market-place idle, and the houses of God be as 
closely shut up as heretofore ? " 

Then came words that to us who have seen the hope 
realised sound almost prophetic : " If the feeble efforts 
made in one of the poorest and least accessible churches 
in London have yielded lasting fruit, what, by God's 
blessing, might not be looked for from the earnest 
preaching of mercy and repentance in the naves of our 
two cathedrals ? what more worthy use of the mother 
churches of the diocese ? " 

Among the preachers whose sermons were printed 
in this volume were many of the most renowned men 
of the Church Movement : Archdeacon Thorpe, Rev. J. 
Keble, T. W. Perry, W. J. Butler (late Dean of Lin- 
coln), E. Monro, W. J. Irons, A. B. Evans, J. R. Wood- 
ford (afterwards Bishop of Ely), Archdeacon Grant, 
J. M. Rodwell, Rev. the Hon. R. Liddell, W. Scott, R. 
Milman (afterwards Bishop of Calcutta), H. Newland, 
H. A. Rawes, James Skinner, etc. 

From this time Mr. Denton, assisted by his curates, 
made the work of the Church felt throughout his densely- 
crowded parish, working not only in the church but in 
the homes and houses of the people, the closely-packed 
courts that lay from Milton Street to Little Moorfields, 
chiefly costermongers, shoemakers, canal porters, char- 
women, and sempstresses, mostly one room to a family ; 



124 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

and the improvement, religious and physical, was won- 
derful. In a few years a parish, part of which once 
bore so ill a character that, except under necessity, persons 
carefully avoided it, was in many points quite altered ; 
so much had been done to remedy the sad state of things. 
Individuals and families were won from their neglect ; 
drunkenness and brawling were less frequent; habits 
of cleanliness were encouraged, and the services of the 
Church fostered reverence and devotion. A good bright 
choral service, thoroughly suited to the neighbourhood ; 
all was sensible and straightforward, the music superin- 
tended with much time and care by the precentor and 
organist ; the psalms and canticles to Gregorian chants 
and arrangements; the Communion office to good simple 
selections from the best Church music compiled and 
arranged by Helmore, Redhead, and Gauntlett ; the 
hymns a small selection, one of the many pioneers of 
Hymns Ancient and Modern. In those days many of 
the clergy, Dr. Irons, F. H. Murray, Dr. Oldknow, etc., 
had made selections for their parishes ; these were 
printed and used by many of their friends. The hymn 
tunes, too, were from the Church Hymn and Tune 
Book\>y Eev. W. J. Blew and Dr. Gauntlett Mr. 
Redhead's book of Hymn Tunes, and the Hymnal Noted. 
The hearty, bright singing of the services and hymns 
was something to remember. Nor was the care and 
reverence confined to Sunday. All the saints' day and 
week-day services and celebrations were given with 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 



125 



equal care in every detail, the occasional offices were all 
carefully rendered ; the Church was for the people, 
without money and without price. Especially was 
this the case with the funerals ; if only a curate 
and the precentor and four or six choir boys were 
available, the funeral service of the poorest person 
was sung and had every attention and respect paid 
to it ; this was quite unusual in those days in the 
City : I forget what it would have cost to have a 
church opened and the service performed, but it was 
a considerable sum ; this custom had a good and solemn 
effect, and was thoroughly appreciated. One very touch- 
ing funeral took place in 1856, the funeral of a little 
child, the only daughter of the Vicar. All appearance 
of gloom was avoided; the altar had its white frontal 
on, with white flowers in the vases ; the legend round 
the pall was, " Of such is the kingdom of heaven ". 
The coffin was met at the door by the clergy and 
choristers ; it was of oak with a raised cross, a purple 
pall with white fringe, a white cross under the legend. 
The sentences were to Mr. Redhead's arrangement of 
Marbeck. After the lesson an introit was sung, and the 
Holy Communion was celebrated and received by the 
parents, godparents, nurse, and a few mourners. At the 
Cemetery, Highgate, the choir and clergy were ready to 
lead the way to the grave, the coffin being carried on a 
bier by six choristers. " Man that is born of a woman" 
was sung to a chant, and " I heard a voice from 



126 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

heaven " to Mr. Redhead's arrangement. As the echo 
of the last Amen died away, the hymn, " Jesus lives ! 
no longer now can thy terrors, death, appal us," made a 
bright conclusion to this sacred office. This choir of St. 
Bartholomew's was well known for many years ; the 
members all reverent, earnest, hearty workers in the 
cause of God's worship and honour ; they made it a work 
of love and religion, and gave of their best. The late 
Dr. Steere, afterwards Bishop Steere, then a law-student 
in London, and the Eev. J. T. Fowler, then studying 
medicine (he is Vice-President of Hatfield Hall, Durham, 
an excellent churchman, and author and antiquarian of 
repute), were for some time members of the choir. 
There was one work of this choir, not a common 
one, which they on several occasions undertook : a 
well-known physician in Finsbury Square was laid up, 
but not by an illness that required great quiet ; on 
Sunday evening, after church, the choir would sing the 
canticles, psalms, and a few hymns in the large drawing- 
room, and the doctor heard them from his room, and 
much appreciated it. One incident, which occurred in 
1852, reminds me that this gift of music and singing 
might be much more used in the rooms and houses of 
the poor, the sick, and the aged : a well-known hymn or 
psalm or canticle sung by a district-visitor or lay-helper, 
would brighten up the long weary day, and cheer many 
a lingering illness. The incident was this : the Church 
Movement was spreading far and wide ; from the West 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 127 

Indies, Jamaica, St. Kitts, St. Vincent, and other parts, 
one heard of much stirring and care for all things be- 
longing to Divine worship. An aged West Indian 
gentleman, a Mr. McAlahon, had come over to England 
for an operation to his eyes, and had an introduction 
to Mr. Masters, and other Church folk in the City; 
among others who called on him was the precentor of 
St. Bartholomew's (who was also churchwarden). In 
the course of their talk, Mr. McMahon, who was aged 
and feeble as well as blind, said how much he missed 
the beautiful services to which he had been accustomed. 
The precentor offered to sing parts of the service to him, 
then and there, and told me afterwards he never should 
forget the look of pleasure on the old man's face ; and 
on that and other visits he sang without any accompani- 
ment, psalm, Te Deum, or canticle and hymns. He 
stood all the time; nothing would induce him to sit 
down while the singing was going on, his thin face most 
expressive of reverence and joy. That was his last 
illness : he died in a few months, but the same deep 
reverence was shown to the last ; he would drag himself 
out of his bed to receive the blessed Sacrament kneel- 
ing. Dr. Bloxam used to tell how in Magdalen College 
Chapel he would carry the blessed Sacrament down to 
old President Routh's stall in his later days, and how 
he would totter from his stall to receive It in like 
manner. 

To come back to Moor Lane, the church was before 



128 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

long much improved, and the chancel stalls, reredos and 
panelling, all of the original dark oak, were rearranged 
in more orthodox plan, the Cross being substituted for 
flaming urns, etc., under the superintendence of Mr. J. 
W. Hallam, a young architect, one of the congregation, 
then living in Charterhouse Square. Mr. Hallam 
published Monumental Memorials, thirty-three de- 
signs for churchyard crosses, coped tombstones, mural 
tablets, etc. : he was for thirty years unable to move 
about, or he would have been more known, but he 
worked indefatigably at his profession the whole time ; 
he died at Scarborough a short time ago. His only son 
was a scholar of Exeter College, and is now curate of 
Slough. 

A portrait of Mr. Denton was presented to the 
parish after his death by Mrs. Denton, and hangs in 
the vestry. 

Mr. Deuton preached a good deal in early days, and 
from his store of mediaeval and patristic learning, his 
sermons were always interesting and instructive ; he 
worked on till the Moorgate Street Eailway swept away 
a very large portion of the parish, and during his later 
years he was much taken up with his many theological 
works, commentaries, histories, etc. In early days 
several of his curates and helpers were men of some 
mark ; his neighbours in the City were ever ready to 
help in celebrations and sermons, among them the Eev. 
W. H. Milman, Minor Canon of St. Paul's and Rector 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 129 

of St. Augustine and St. Faith ; the Rev. J. A. L. 
Airey, now Rector of St. Helen's ; and H. Hay man, 
afterwards headmaster of Rugby School, then assist- 
ant-master at the Charterhouse School, a learned 
classical and theological scholar, editor and author he 
did write some lighter works, which are not probably 
remembered now. He was preaching one night ac 
St. Bartholomew's, and seemed a little hesitating and 
confused at the beginning of his sermon ; on the way 
home the churchwarden asked what was the matter. 
"Matter enough," said Mr. Hayman ; "you would 
have felt a little nervous if, on getting up into the 
pulpit, you had seen your old headmaster in the seat 
right under you, and looking up at you, reminding you 
of tasks and floggings." It was Dr. Deane, of Mer- 
chant Taylors, who at times came to the service. Later 
on Canon Liddon was a good friend and help (he was 
godfather to one of the vicar's boys). On the occasion 
of the secession of two of the curates, Canon Liddon 
came and preached and reassured many ; and I think 
scarcely any of the regular congregation followed the 
curates' step. His sermon on " Our conversation is in 
heaven," at that time, was, I think, printed in one of 
his volumes. 

The secessions to Rome were of course one great trial 
and drawback to the movement; they were no novelty, 
as such happened here and there during the Great 
Rebellion, and from time to time after the outward 

9 



130 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

visible union with the See of Eome was broken : 
the point to remember and insist upon is this, that, 
compared with the extent of the fifty years' influ- 
ence, teaching, literature, devotion, and new spiritual 
life of the Church Movement, the secessions to Eome 
were but as a drop in the ocean. 

One of the earliest curates at St. Bartholomew's was 
Charles Robins, son of the Rev. Sanderson Robins, a 
popular evangelical preacher in a large chapel at St. 
John's Wood ; he was a very fluent extempore preacher, 
and afterwards took charge of the Mission Chapel in 
Clare Market. 

About the middle of 1852 a young, fair, ascetic- 
looking man might be seen preaching one Sunday even- 
ing in the pulpit of St. Botolph's, Aldgate ; there was no 
mistake about his energy and enthusiasm, he preached 
from a written sermon on the Golden Image of Nebu- 
chadnezzar, and applied the lesson to the worship of 
money as a caution to many City men ; it was after- 
wards published this young preacher was the Rev. H. 
A. Rawes, curate to Mr. Baker, the rector; he was 
rather a striking figure with his new M.A. gown, Cam- 
bridge hood, crape bands, and deep crape cuffs to his 
cassock sleeves ; he was in mourning for the young 
lady to whom he had been engaged to be married, and 
a very different course of life was now before him, 
though for some years he regularly visited her grave 
with flowers. He became curate to Mr. Denton, and 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 131 

worked vigorously on the lines of the movement for 
some years, acquiring some fame as a preacher, and 
favour as a parish priest, and was somewhat of a poet 
as well, rather eccentric and excitable. He became 
Warden of the House of Charity, Soho, where I have 
already spoken of him. 

One Sunday evening later on, the vicar on the way 
to church came across his churchwarden with two young 
clergymen, both fair and tall, one fairly stout and the 
other thin, and both in rough serge cassocks down to 
their feet. Folks were not then much accustomed to such 
visions in the streets of the City, and the new visitors 
attracted some attention. These were Henry and Richard 
Collins, brothers of Thomas Collins, M.P. for Knares- 
borough and Boston, and sons of the Rev. Thomas 
Collins, of Knaresborough. For a while they both 
helped in the parish, and very able men they were. 
Richard remained some time as curate, and afterwards 
became Vicar of St. Saviour's, Leeds, where he died. 
Henry joined a monastic order after working for a 
short time at St. George's-in-the-East. At first, ci 
their coining from Cornwall, they were not over-careful 
as to toilet and dress ; but London helped to mend that, 
though a friend told me that he met Henry a few 
years after, looking much more like a farmer than a 
monk, with a large cotton umbrella and a bundle over 
his shoulder. We will not forget that to him we owe 
those two beautiful hymns we so often sing, " Jesu 



132 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

meek and lowly," and " Jesu my Lord, my God, my 
all ". With these two there came to St. Bartholomew's 
the knowledge of the Rev. Eobert Aitken, father of the 
well-known missionary preacher, Vicar of Pendeen, in 
Cornwall; how in addition to the doctrines of the 
movement, with a considerable amount of ritual, he 
taught something like the Wesleyan view of sensible 
personal conversion. This Mr. Aitken, a fine, hand- 
some man of middle age and portly presence, came to 
St. Bartholomew's, and held a mission, urging on us 
the fact that we were many of us unconverted. Mr. 
Aitken was certainly a most gifted preacher ; few could 
at all compare with him for arousing a multitude. The 
secession to Rome of several who had been attracted 
by his earnest preaching tended, perhaps, in his later 
years, to a revulsion against the revival of Catholic 
truth. His views much impressed both Mr. Collins, 
and also one of the curates, the Rev. W. R. Brownlow. 
About this time there were open-air services in some 
of the courts around Moor Lane, the choir in cassocks 
and surplices, with cross ; hymns and short stirring 
sermons. The well-known scholar, Henry Nutcombe 
Oxenham, was for some time curate ; he had been, as a 
deacon, helping, I think, Mr. Monro, at Harrow Weald, 
and worked with Mr. Denton for some while, and 
was there ordained priest by the Bishop of London. It 
was said that this ordination he never would declare 
invalid ; and so, though nominally a Roman Catholic, 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 133 

he never was very obedient or submissive, and certainly 
his new friends in religion never found him work to do ; 
but at St. Bartholomew's he was really one of the most 
brilliant speakers and preachers, and would surely have 
attained fame in that way ; his slight, elegant figure, 
very dark complexion and handsome features helped 
to make him attractive. He would preach excellent 
sermons with no longer notice than this : just when all 
were ready to go in, the vicar would say, " I don't feel 
quite well ; will you preach, Oxenham ? " He might make 
a few notes while the precentor was reading the lessons, 
and that was all. His enthusiasm for Home was not last- 
Ing, though at first he would drive those he could not lead 
there ; and one he had so driven told me that on arriving 
at Clapham to be received, he was as nearly as possible 
running away, instead of ringing the bell. His friend, 
Dr. F. G. Lee, then a young man living in London, and 
much interested in all Church literature, was a helper 
and preacher at St. Bartholomew's, and a very good 
extempore preacher : he became a most industrious 
writer and editor in Church history and lore. 

The career of one of the curates is worth more than a 
few short words. This was James Marshall, an Exeter 
College man, a very earnest and energetic curate in 
every way. A good musician and preacher too ; with 
dark hair and bright dark eyes, he was one -of the best 
workers, and was much beloved throughout the parish. 
He was the son of the Kev. James Marshall, Vicar of 



134 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Christ Church, Clifton, a great leader among the early 
Evangelicals, and his mother was a daughter of Leigh 
Eichmond, also a famous writer and preacher of the 
same school. To be brought up in an extreme school of 
the kind was not often a success ; and, of course, Mr. 
Marshall was a High Churchman when he came to St. 
Bartholomew's. He had but one arm, the other having 
been shot off by accident when he was a lad. So able 
was he to do everything with one arm, that at dinner and 
all meals no notice whatever was taken or difference 
made ; but the question of a clergyman with one arm 
was a serious one, and it must have been in very lax 
times indeed that a Bishop of the Church of England 
would ordain a man with one arm: certainly, Archbishop 
Laud, who refused ordination to, I think, Shirley the 
poet and play writer on account of a disfiguring mole on 
his face, would not have done so. The celebration of 
the Holy Communion was the chief difficulty, but 
he was seldom alone at St. Bartholomew's ; and if by 
chance he was so at an early Communion, the precentor, 
in cassock and surplice, carried the paten by his side 
along the chancel rail. We may say that certainly Mr. 
Marshall should not have been ordained, and after his 
secession to the Church of Eome he had to give up all 
idea of it ; so, after a short time of choir and other work 
at Bayswater, he proceeded to the Bar, and during the war 
with King Koffee was judge on that West Coast of Africa, 
signing despatches that appeared in the Times. After 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 135 

some years of service in that very trying climate he re- 
turned home, and was knighted, doing some political and 
colonial work till his death a very few years ago. Few 
people knew that Sir James Marshall was once a curate 
in an obscure City church. Mr. Lyne (Father Ignatius) 
was for some time a curate there. There are a few other 
names to be recorded. 

Charles Lyford, an Oxford man of Oriel College, where 
Lord Blatchford, Edward Monro, and Gathorne Hardy, 
were his contemporaries. Dr. Bloxam of Upper Beeding, 
Sussex, who had been Newman's curate at Littlemore, 
was always glad to show and tell many things connected 
with those early days ; among other things he had a 
" round robin " with those four names to it, addressed to 
Newman when Bursar of Oriel, about the dinners in Hall. 
Mr. Lyford had been curate to Dr. Mountain at 
Hemel Hempstead, and afterwards at St. Barnabas, 
Pimlico, and was one of the most hard-working. He 
was a specimen of the ever-cheerful, kind, helpful 
parson, most active and energetic, at home with 
people of his own standing, and just as much so in 
the poorest woman's room or cottage, and ready to help 
in the most practical way. Nothing put him out, and 
he enjoyed a good laugh right heartily. He took 
charge for some years of the daily Litany at one o'clock 
at St. Ethelburga's Church, Bishopsgate Street, in con- 
junction with the churchwarden and precentor of St. 
Bartholomew's, Mr. Spenser Nottingham, Canon Bristow 



136 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

(then a layman in the City), and a few others ; only 
once, I think, he was away, and then by direction of the 
vicar, the Rev. J. M. Rodwell, the precentor sang the 
Litany up to the Lord's Prayer. Mr. Lyford left St. 
Bartholomew's to help the Rev. T. Simpson Evans, rector 
of St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, and was first incumbent of 
St. Michael's in that parish, where he was succeeded by 
Mr. Nihill, his curate. Mr. Baird, afterwards of Homer- 
ton, and Mr. Philip Sankey were some time curates : also, 
the Rev. Christopher Thompson, well known for his 
Church music, and now Vicar of Pen sax, in Worcester- 
shire ; he was ever a kind helper and friend to the 
Rev. R. W. Enraght, at Bordesley, during his 
incumbency and troublous times. 

Mr. Martin, an early churchwarden of the parish, 
emigrated with all his family to New Zealand, and per- 
haps carried there many recollections of his City parish 
and the services they so appreciated. Among the con- 
gregation and kind helpers one should record the names 
of Mrs. Kingdon (mother of Bishop Kingdon), wife of 
Dr. Kingdon, of New Bank Buildings ; Miss Rees, sister 
of Dr. Rees, of Finsbury Square ; the Misses Tidman and 
their two brothers ; Mr. and Mrs. Lias, and their children 
(among them the present Professor J. J. Lias) ; and Miss 
Townsend, of Suffolk Lane, now Sister Zilla, of East 
Grinstead and Newport Market Refuge Mission fame ; 
the Misses Beale, and their brothers, the younger of 
whom has a history that is pathetic. E. H. Beale was 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 137 

educated at Merchant Taylors' School and St. John's 
College, Oxford, and was ordained deacon, December, 
1869, and was Curate of Warminster. Owing to a 
partial paralysis from his earliest years, he never took 
priest's orders ; his time was given up to the services, 
teaching, parish work, and missionary administration. 
In 1877 he went to India, and spent the rest of his life 
in loving and untiring devotion to the Church in Western 
India. His death was recorded a few months ago. And 
last, but by no means least, I would record Mrs. Denton's 
many years of untiring work in the parish ; the kind 
friend, helper, and adviser of all, especially of those 
in need or trouble. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE account of the work at St. Bartholomew's, Moor 
Lane, given in the last chapter, would hardly be complete 
without a word about the very wonderful amount of 
unfavourable notice accorded to it in the papers: all 
was described with the most extraordinary inaccuracy. 
Eeporters were sent to the services to take notes, who 
had evidently never attended a church in their lives, 
and the singular things they saw and recorded were 
almost beyond belief. The Oxford M.A. hoods were 
described thus : " Some of the clergy were robed in red 
and black slashings," and so on, through various parts 
of the service. It was in the Vestry of St. Michael's, 
Shoreditch, that coloured stoles were first called " rib- 
bons," a term of contempt still used by a few who seem 
to think there is some law, human or divine, that all 
such vestments should be perpetually black. Why 
black ? Such worthy folk, who are to be found often 
quoting the Bible, might find little sanction for their 
gloomy preference in the beautiful account of the colours 
ordered to be worn in Divine Service in the Book of 
Exodus. The presence of many clergy and laymen, 

hearty workers in the movement, in this part of the 

(138) 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 139 

City was much due to the fact that Mr. Masters' pub- 
lishing and printing works were in Aldersgate Street 
and the far-famed Bartholomew Close. The chief 
editors and writers in the cause were constant visitors 
in Aldersgate Street with MSS. copy, revised proofs, 
etc. ; Mr. Brett, from Stoke Newington, having studied 
proofs in his brougham as he drove along ; Mr. Cham- 
berlain, from Oxford ; Mr. Monro, from Harrow Weald ; 
Mr. Heygate, from Southend ; Dr. Irons, from Brompton ; 
Dr. Neale, from East Grinstead ; and a host of others. 

One name, the Eev. W. B. Flower, I may mention 
here, as he was close by, a junior classical master in 
Christ's Hospital, when Mr. Collinwood was senior ; he 
was also Curate of St. James's, Enfield Highway, to the 
Eev. J. Fuller Kussell, and some time at Crawley, in 
Sussex. He was a bright scholar and preacher, and 
being so near Aldersgate Street, assisted in much of 
the literary work there. He wrote and edited several 
works: among others, Tales of Faith and Providence 
and Classical Tales. He was also first editor of the 
Churchman's Companion, till 1858, when he became 
Chaplain at Baden-Baden ; he was succeeded in the 
editorship by Mr. Masters' partner till 1863, when the 
office was taken by the author of the Divine Master, and 
other works. Mr. Flower, for a short time, helped 
Mr. Purchas when he first took St. James's, Brighton. 

Mention should be made of the Parish Church of St. 
Leonard's, Shoreditch, a large classical building on the 



HO RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

site of the old church, designed by Dance, about 1736. 
In its early days the church was famous for its register 
of renowned players and their children. The rector at 
the time we are speaking of, was the Kev. T. Simpson 
Evans, M.A., son of a rather famous astronomer and 
mathematician. Mr. Evans was much beloved, and was 
in every way the model of an English parish priest of 
the very best kind, and had some excellent men as 
curates ; he encountered fierce opposition in the few 
ritual improvements he made ; he had a fund of infor- 
mation about the Churchmen of the preceding century ; 
edited the life of Bishop Frampton, the non-juror, and 
had made valuable historical and biographical notes 
relative to a series of orthodox Catholic divines and 
laymen in the Church of England, during the unfavour- 
able times of the four Georges from Sherlock, 
Sparkes, Sutton, Spinckes, Nelson, down to Joshua 
Watson, Sikes of Guisborough, Bishop Middle ton, 
Boodle, Joseph Whiteley of Beeston, Sawbridge of 
Stretton-on-Dunsmuir, Van Mildert, and H. H. Nbrris. 
The latter, a most active member of the orthodox 
Church societies, wrote to a friend : "I want to see a 
centre formed, to which all zealously affected Churchmen 
may resort, and counterplot the numerous and most 
subtle devices against our very existence, which every 
day is bringing to light". Such men were forerunners 
of the Church Movement ; and Mr. Simpson Evans was 
a follower of those men, whose work fitted in well with 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 141 

the progress of the Tractarian Movement. Mr. Evans 
lived on Stoke Newington Common, and his wife and 
children were often among the worshippers at St. Mat- 
thias, Stoke Newington. 

Making our way along the KingslandRoad and through 
the then green lanes to the west of it, we come to this 
church of St. Matthias, for many years a most power- 
ful centre of work ; it is not inappropriate to mention 
it here, as a larger number of City merchants and men 
of business were attached to that church, its work and 
services, than to any other suburban church. Mr. 
Butterfield was the architect of it, and a great friend of 
its founder, and ever took the deepest interest in its 
early work and trials connected with the secession of its 
first vicar. At that trying time Mr. Butterfield once 
asked a young friend of his just in deacon's orders to come 
and help, which he did for six weeks. His first sermon 
in London was on St. James's Day, at St. Matthias, and 
he was rather nervous, but consoled himself with the 
thought that on a week-day evening in July there would 
not be a critical audience. Alas ! in the choir were T. 
S. Evans and A. B. Evans, and there was a numerous 
congregation. The beautiful church of St. Matthias owed 
its origin and completion entirely to the splendid zeal 
and untiring energy of one famous layman, Robert Brett, 
a surgeon, living in a house on Stoke Newington Green, 
next door to the old Unitarian Chapel there. Here 
with his wife and children, who were also hearty in the 



142 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

work, he lived in a most simple quiet way ; working at 
his profession (having no carriage for some years, till a 
few friends insisted on presenting him with a brougham). 
He might well be called the Robert Nelson of his day ; 
the Church's work and needs were ever deeply in his 
heart, and his influence with all the busy City men 
and merchants was wonderfully shown in the many 
goodly churches that arose one after another in the 
neighbourhood : Haggerston, Shoreditch, Hackney, 
Clapton, etc., etc. At first a vestry was called to pre- 
vent St. Matthias being built. " You see, sir, the vestry 
are unanimous against you." His reply was, " The 
work will be done ". While the funds for St. Matthias 
were being gathered and the church was building, a 
very beautiful choral service was carried on for years, 
in the schoolrooms, where on Sundays there never was 
room for one additional chair. The brightness and 
heartiness were to be seen and felt rather than de- 
scribed ; and when the large noble church was finished 
and ready for consecration, many a lingering look of 
affection to the old schoolroom was given in passing. 
The services in the new church, with the late Mr. W. 
H. Monk as organist, Mr. W. Ardley as assistant, Mr. 
Spenser Nottingham as precentor, and Mr. Scott the 
schoolmaster, were as grand and effective as devoted 
care and talent and skill could make them ; all was 
exact and reverent, even to the practices, and compared 
with the frequent careless and perfunctory exercises 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 143 

called choir practices, those at St. Matthias were 
models indeed ; nothing was slurred over or hurried, 
and no boy or member dared to appear for practice ill 
the stalls without his cassock. The music was from 
the purest Gregorian sources, and the large choir gave 
effect to the ancient music with a body of voice that 
would compare well with some of the famous choirs on 
the continent. Some of the congregation did not all 
at once care for so severe a style of service, but the 
beauty and perfection soon overcame that feeling with 
most people. One visitor came who had quite a pre- 
judice against Gregorian music, and after the service a 
frieud asked him his opinion. "Well," he replied, "you 
know I never did care much for Gregorians, but they 
were so exquisitely done that I have not a word to say 
against them." Certainly the whole service was ren- 
dered with a care and completeness that no church in 
England could then compare with ; it was a privilege 
to live near such a church, and to know and see con- 
stantly the churchwarden and founder, whose noble 
presence and handsome countenance as he stood at the 
west end of the church, is to many, even now, a vivid 
memory. In his work as a medical man he was ever 
kind, sympathising, and skilful ; his presence in a sick 
room was a very bright one, and what he was to 
invalids through long and trying illnesses, is known 
perhaps only or chiefly where sickness and death are no 
more. With children he was especially kind and help- 



H4 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

ful, and was much beloved by them ; he had his own 
pet names by which he always remembered some of 
them ; for a long time in writing to a friend of mine he 
would remember his favourite names for the children, 
and sent his love to Fair Esther, Saint Cecilia, Loza, 
Pickle, Georgey, and Tom Tucker. Yet with all his 
professional work he found time to write, compile, and 
edit a great many devotional and practical works, most 
of which were widely used and valued. There is only 
space to mention a few of these books : Devotions for 
the Sick Room, Companion for the Sick Room, Doctrine 
of the Cross, illustrated in a memorial of a humble 
follower of Christ (one of his Stoke Newington patients), 
Instructions, Prayers, and Aspirations for afflicted 
Christians, Manual of Devotion for Schoolboys, Pocket 
Manual of Prayers, Simple Prayers for Little Children, 
Reflections, Meditations, and Prayers, with Harmony on 
the Life of Our Lord, Churchman's Guide to Faith and 
Piety, etc. On all his books he put " By the Author 
of Devotions for the Sick Room, etc. " ; his name was 
never on the title-page. It would be difficult to tell of 
half the active work for the Church in the way of 
councils, committees, guilds, penitentiaries, orphanages, 
and sisterhoods in which Mr. Brett for many years took 
a real part. He was a staunch Church of England 
man, and in the troubles about secessions he took a 
firm stand. I quote from one of his letters : "It is 
worse than useless to make any advances towards 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 145 

unity so long as Romanists apply the most abusive 
and calumnious epithets to the church of which we are 
members. Could any man of right feeling court the 
friendship of another who on all occasions vilified his 
natural mother as an adulteress, a blasphemer, and 
lying deceiver ? How, then, can we endure all this 
against our spiritual mother if we have a single spark 
of catholic principle or love within us ? " He had no 
sympathy with such converts as were evidently only 
too glad to get rid of the burden of their orders, and 
wrote witty invitations with a P.S. : "I am always at 
home on a Sunday, especially during the hours of Divine 
service;" or with those who a few weeks after they 
were with us ministering as priests, were dressing for 
the opera, or standing up to dance at a ball for the first 
time in their life, to prove that they were mere lay- 
men ; or, worse still, would within a short time of leav- 
ing the Church pretend to forget the catholic origin and 
detail of the liturgy of the Church of England, which 
they had used for years. Nor again with those who 
within two or three years of their secession wrote as if 
they were authorised to speak for the whole Western 
Church; " we maintain," "our contention is," "we 
quite understand," and that on subjects never even 
definitely pronounced upon by that Church. With such 
as these Mr. Brett could be severe. He could also 
be severe on the other side. The following passages 

are from a letter to a well-known Evangelical 

10 



146 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

clergyman, written some years before the riots, pro- 
secutions, and persecutions that followed some time 
after. Parts of it were almost prophetic. 

"KEV. SIR, I read with sorrow and anguish of 
mind the misstatements and misrepresentations of the 
doctrines, principles, practices, and designs of those 
called ' Anglo-Catholics '. I ask, is the fearful struggle 
so near at hand, that every soul holding Anglo- Catholic 
opinions is to be hunted like a partridge on the moun- 
tains ? There is one point in your sermon which must 
arouse every layman who has a heart to love his Saviour 
and his Church ; I allude to the exhortation to every 
' Christian man ' to divide the Church and scatter the 
seeds of disunion through the land. What ! are the 
sanctuaries of God to be desecrated by the unhallowed 
intrusion of spies and reckless agitators, entering, not to 
pray, but to scrutinise and contemn the clergy who are 
faithfully and laboriously ministering to their flocks ? 
Oh, sad and fearful struggle, parents and children 
thwarted in the best and holiest plans ! Pastors wearied 
and broken-hearted by opposition and disunion ! You, 
reverend sir, have sounded this trumpet of war, and 
there are hundreds who will come to its call ; but who 
will they be ? Not men, mild, gentlemanly, Christian, 
like yourself; but ignorant, fiery religious partisans, 
whose happiness it would be to bring every Anglo- 
Catholic to misery or exile. Can it be right in you to 
stir up such men to go through the length and breadth 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 147 

of the Church to sit in judgment on her clergy ? By 
all that is holy and true, by the love and compassion of 
the Saviour, by whatever is lovely, peaceable and sacred, 
I would respectfully entreat you to reconsider and re- 
call what you have said. If this cannot be, if the 
straggle must go on, then 'God's will be done'. If I 
have inadvertently expressed myself in an unchristian 
or uncourteous manner, I humbly ask pardon. Yours, 
etc." 

On his death, in 1874, he was mourned by church- 
men far and wide, and his funeral on the 7th of Febru- 
ary was indeed remarkable ; after the service and cele- 
bration in the church, thousands followed to the grave, 
and testified to their deep sense of a great loss, and the 
value to the Church of such a holy and beautiful 
character. One can only recall the names of a few of 
Mr. Brett's friends and fellow-workers, and in most in- 
stances these names will include families of sons and 
daughters : Beck, Porter, Hall, Hazard, Unwin, Dickin- 
son, Charrington, Bodley, R. Forster, Butterfield, Mack- 
reth, Tritton, Parnell, Heathfield, Nottingham, Caffin, 
Brooks, Elliott, Hoole, Knight, B. E. B., and many 
more ; from one such centre as this, we can measure 
how the movement grew and spread, for at the present 
day many of the sons and daughters of Mr. Brett's 
friends are doing the same work and living the life 
of the higher principles learned from such men, handed 
on from time to time. 



148 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

It was a great loss when the Rev. S. W. Mangin 
retired from the post of vicar, after four years of the 
early struggles and trials of the new church. Mr. Le 
G-eyt then carried on the work for some years. The 
story is told that, on the occasion of the opening of 
Cuddesden College, one of the gushing and enthusiastic 
students rushed into Oxford the day before, declaring 
that the whole thing was spoiled and must be a miser- 
able failure, as one of the clergymen selected for the 
honour of singing the Litany on the festive occasion 
was not only married but wore whiskers ! This was 
Mr. Le Geyt ; his wife was a Miss Monro : there was 
one consolation, he certainly could, and did, sing exceed- 
ingly well. The other singer was Mr. Huntingford, of 
Littlemore. Of the curates, the names of Smyttan, 
Doran, Pantin, etc., recall good work and teaching. The 
series of special Lent and Advent sermons were of no 
ordinary kind ; those by Mr. Skinner, Mr. dutch, and 
well-esteemed preachers were attended by large congre- 
gations. Dr. Neale, too, preached there : once an 
extempore sermon of great power. One other sermon, 
also extempore, was of a kind to make one wonder how 
it was given it was on an Old Testament subject, and 
the long names of places and titles abounded through- 
out the whole sermon, and the preacher was the Rev. 
Thos. Chamberlain, late of St. Thomas's, Oxford. The 
carol singing by the splendid choir, well and most 
carefully done, was simply charming. The First Nowell 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 149 

was just published, and a friend describes the effect of it 
when sung under his window on Christmas morn as most 
thrilling and effective. While in this neighbourhood 
the valuable pioneering work done by the Rev. John 
Eoss, at St. Mary's, Haggerstone, must be especially 
recorded. Ere long, by Mr. Jacomb, Mr. E. Foster, and 
others, many churches were built in North-East London, 
the latter giving his own residence at Clapton for the first 
Suffragan Bishop of London. It is happiness to record 
that although for a time the Church work seemed failing 
at St. Matthias, it is now in all essentials revived and well 
carried on by the Eev. F. Gaud well, the present vicar, 
son-in-law of the late Eev. Eobert Aitken. 

But we have wandered far away from the City and 
from those churches where a brighter and better state 
of things was soon to take the place of the dreary 
empty City church described in some popular novels 
and tales. The Golden Lectures at St. Margaret, Loth- 
bury, when given by Henry Melvill, Daniel Moore, and 
such excellent preachers, were well attended by busy 
City men. 

At St. Augustine and St. Faith, where the Eev. W. H. 
Milman, minor canon, etc., was rector, there were weekly 
arid saint-day celebrations. 

From 1857 to 1873 the Eev. Morgan Cowie, now 
Dean of Exeter, held the Church of St. Lawrence Jewry, 
the large church by Guildhall (with the gridiron, the 
emblem of the saint's martyrdom, as vane on the steeple), 



150 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

and proved, most surely, that City churches need not be 
empty. After its rearrangement and decoration in 1867, 
under Sir A. "W. Blomfield, no finer church of its kind 
could be found ; and the grand choral service, carried on 
by the old choir of St. Philip, Clerkenwell, with careful 
ritual, was fully in accord with the building. These, with 
bright, telling sermons, brought a large attendance, and 
much good work was the result in many ways. What 
a contrast to the state in which I saw the church many 
years before, when Robert Montgomery, then of Glasgow, 
was preaching ! The church was filled by a not very 
orderly mob, who clambered over the gallery pews, and 
broke some of the woodwork. Talking of vanes sym- 
bolical, reminds me of one curious case : when the 
church of St. Mildred, Poultry, was standing, in my 
early days, the vane on the steeple was half a ship, in 
accordance with the legend that the ship in which St. 
Mildred came over was broken in two by the waves, 
and she came safely to land in one-half ! On repairing 
the vane more recently the enlightened churchwardens 
replaced it by a whole ship. 

I may name another instance where a good service 
and work has for many years made its way, and in a 
church in a much less prominent position than St. Law- 
rence, I mean the church of St. Clement, Eastcheap, 
under Minor Canon Hall (son of the Rev. W. J. Hall, 
whose Mitre Hymnal is still remembered). Here, with a 
good choral service well rendered, and weekly com- 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 151 

munion, there is always an excellent congregation. In 
the old church of this parish, Bishop Pearson delivered 
his famous lectures on the Creed. 

This may be the place to mention another City church 
where trouble arose after the removal of Dr. Cowie to 
the Deanery of Exeter ; the new rector of St. Lawrence 
Jewry was making fresh plans, and the choir had a 
fresh post of work to seek ; the Rev. Thomas Pelham 
Dale, who had been some years Rector of St. Vedast's, 
Foster Lane, gladly welcomed them to his church ; and, 
naturally, a more ornate service, with better music and 
ritual, was the result. Mr. Dale, a quiet scholar, and 
learned in science and art, gave himself heartily to the 
work. They had, however, to reckon with the opposing 
churchwardens and vestry of the double parish of St. 
Vedast and St. Michael le Querne, who actually assisted 
the Church Association to prosecute their rector, and 
paid over a sum from the parish fund to that association. 
Mr. Dale was harassed and persecuted for a long time, 
holding out against such powerful odds, but was at last 
imprisoned in Holloway Gaol. He was the son of 
Canon Dale, the Dean of Rochester of whom I have 
spoken in some early pages, and was much esteemed by 
many of the best clergy of the day, who gave him much 
kindness and support in his trouble. The story has 
been told in a quiet and pathetic way in his daughter's 
publication of his Letters. This St. Vedast's, just at the 
back of the Post Office, was one of the City churches 



152 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

where the daily service was continued in the eighteenth 
century a record of these daily services was published 
in a small book called Pietas Londinensis. On the 
steps of this church occurred the little incident of 
Mr. Sikes of Guisborough and William Stevens meet- 
ing, they being almost the only attendants at week-day 
service; and William Stevens jokingly said, "Never 
mind, if you will not tell of me I will not tell of you". 
Stevens was a kinsman of Bishop Home, and one of 
those churchmen in whom was found a spirit of deep 
primitive piety throughout the eighteenth century. 

It has been to some a matter of surprise that men 
like Mr. Cowie at St. Lawrence, and his very able neigh- 
bour, Mr. Scott at St. Olave, formerly of Hoxton, 
should have made no great move ; Dean Cowie's ex- 
planation was that " from the time of the Eevolution, 
the City has been the stronghold of Puritanism ". 

We must not forget to record Mr. Fish's work at St. 
Margaret Pattens, which he bravely carried on, though 
on the day that the Public Worship Eegulation Act 
came into force his vestry passed a resolution to prose- 
cute him under its provisions ; nor Mr. Benham's 
at St. Edmund the King and Martyr, where the good 
work had been long carried on by Mr. Hill ; he got the 
church restored, and with his son gathered a good con- 
gregation. Father Ignatius preached there in his time. 

At All Saints, Bishopsgate, the Eev. Thomas Hugo, a 
man learned in antiquity and art, much raised the whole 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 



'53 



tone of the service, and brought things to a still higher 
standard while at West Hackney. 

Somewhat further on we come to St. Peter's, Stepney, 
then under Mr. (late Canon) Rowsell, where for some 
years were frequent services and celebrations, carried 
out on the lines of the Church Movement ; Mr. Rowsell 
preached from the altar steps the sermon at the opening 
of Mr. Lowder's Chapel in Old Gravel Lane. His pre- 
decessor was the Rev. Thomas Jackson, who became the 
head of St. Mark's College, Battersea ; it is said that on 
his first appearance in the pulpit of St. Peter's in a sur- 
plice, the whole congregation rose en masse and left ! 

The old Parish Church of Stepney, under Mr. Lee, 
was then taking part in the general increase of outward 
reverence and order. At St. Philip's, under Mr. Heath- 
cote Brooks, there was a good choral service early in 
the forties. And in one of the divisions of this large 
parish a work was being done, and events occurring, 
which had much more than merely local results. The 
Rev. Bryan King, M.A., of Brasenose College, Oxford, in- 
cumbent of St. John's, Bethnal Green, became rector in 
1842 of St. George's-in-the-East, a very large parish, 
through which ran the notorious Ratcliff Highway, 
teeming with sailors from every country, the street laid 
out, as it were, for the reception, entertainment, and 
amusement of sailors, filled with boarding-houses, cheap 
shops, and all the attendants of a seafaring population. 
It has been said that a full volume would not suffice to 



154 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

write the records of crime and misery to be found in this 
place. No wonder that years of work by one or two 
clergy in such a parish would only serve to show that 
some special and extraordinary work and energy, some 
body of men who would give up everything to raise the 
men and women of that parish out of the depths of 
wretchedness and degradation, were needed. So about 
1856 Mr. King invited some clergymen into his parish 
to establish a mission there, to act as missionaries, and 
be licensed as curates. The story has been told in very 
touching and thrilling words in the Life of Charles 
Lowder ; how he, with Mr. Mackonochie and others, 
went to live in the very midst of all the sin and misery 
with which they were so long to contend. There it is 
recorded how they began to work against the recklessness 
of vice, the unblushing effrontery with which it was 
carried on when the lowest of every country combined 
to add their quota to the already overflowing stock, 
where the children even were taught early to thieve, to 
swear, to be bold and immoral in their manners and 
talk ; how they lived first in an old house in Calvert 
Street, now divided into two houses, one for the clergy 
and one for the sisters. In that house they opened a 
room, licensed by the bishop, for daily prayer and 
frequent preaching ; here they gathered a congregation 
(this room is now used as the sisters' oratory). Then a. 
choir was formed ; and in 1856 the Iron Chapel of 
the Good Shepherd, where they had daily Communion. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 



'55 



from the first, and a baud or guild of communicants, 
Confirmation and Bible classes. Then came woman's 
help, schools, and visiting, bringing children to baptism. 
Then in 1857 Dr. Neale's sister began a sisterhood; then 
another mission, with the old Danish church in Well- 
close Square as its centre. Bishop Tait took kind and 
active interest in all this work. Mr. Eowley, who was 
afterwards ordained, and went with Bishop Mackenzie 
to Africa, took charge of the boys' school in Old Gravel 
Lane ; the sisters taught the girls. Then for penitents 
in 1858, a home, far from the scene of their degrada- 
tion, was taken at Sutton in Surrey. Then an indus- 
trial school for girls, to rescue many from the perils 
in their own home ; for them a building at Hendon was 
taken, with laundry, kitchen, nursery, chapel, chaplain's 
room, sisters' room, and dormitories. In January, 1857, 
Mr. Mackonochie joined the mission, stirred by the 
sight of the brave soldier, Charles Lowder. Thus they 
worked on, winning souls to Christ in true repentance, 
in the faith of the Church, and in the duties of the 
Christian life. Happily, neither Mr. Mackonochie nor 
Mr. Lowder knew what fear was, either of mob, riots, 
or violence. 

So, after fifteen years of honest but almost hopeless 
work, Mr. King had all this fresh strength joined to 
his, and the mission in its course attacked the very 
stronghold of evil; with its six clergy, fifty-four services 
a week, six hundred children taught, no wonder the 



156 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

vestry saw that their easy time of power was in danger ; 
moreover, many of them were owners of notorious 
evil houses. In 1859 this vestry had appointed a Eev. 
Hugh Allen as afternoon lecturer, against the wish of 
the rector. He was one of those fierce party spirits 
foretold by Mr. Brett, and had a noisy and irreverent 
set of followers ; after much dispute as to the time 
of the afternoon lecture, in which Mr. King was, as 
ever, courteous and conciliatory, the first disturbance 
certainly came from some of Mr. Allen's congregation, 
who stayed on afterwards to the rector's service. This 
disturbance consisted in much the same kind of annoy- 
ance that took place at the morning service for some 
time, by very different people to the wretched mob and 
rabble who kept up the disgraceful riots in the evening 
for ten long months, but they set the example of dis- 
order, and knew well what they were about ; they were 
clearly educated people, sent or hired for the purpose. 
Their plan was to say or read in an aggressive tone of 
voice all that the choir sang, including the psalms. 
Now and then it would have been ludicrous if not so 
irreverent; as, for instance, when the choir began the 
Gregorian chant to " My song shall be of the loving 
kindness of the Lord," to have those words shouted 
in your ear in a tone of voice that implied very little 
loving kindness was rather trying. The rector's people 
never annoyed or interfered with the lecturer's service. 
Mr. King submitted to the bishop in every possible way 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 157 

discontinuing for a time the use of the Eucharistic 
vestments which had been presented two years before 
by members of his congregation, with a request that he 
would use them. Let us hope Mr. Hugh Allen came to 
a better mind. A friend tells me that years afterwards 
he was seen joining in the service of Benediction at 
Mr. Nugee's Chapel in the Old Kent Eoad. 

But our readers will like to know what the riots 
at evening service at the church of St. George's-in-the- 
East were like. The moment the church was opened 
for service a crowd of men, women, boys, and girls, 
rushed in, filling it in every corner, scrambled to the 
galleries, and called to their companions where to sit ; 
the gallery of a theatre on Box ing- night was peace and 
quietness compared to it. This went on till the church 
was quite full, and very early in the riots the stalls and 
reading-desk were thus occupied by the mob. 

Then the clergy and choir conducted the service in 
the chancel apse, protected from the mob by the chan- 
cel railings, passing in from the vestry door for some 
time through a file of policemen. What can one say 
of the service ? Imagine a mob of the very dregs of 
society, howling and shouting the responses in front of 
the chancel ; women just as they came from the streets 
with shawls over their heads, howling the Lord's 
Prayer and some of the prayers and responses : it was 
more like a scene from the French Revolution than ser- 
vice in a Christian church ; imagine this mob all through 



158 RECOLLECTIONS OF 

the service, lessons and sermon, coughing, hissing, 
stamping feet, whistling and slamming pew-doors. 
Nothing seemed to touch them, or if they stared quietly 
in wonder for a few minutes at the tremendous Easter 
Alleluias in the Easter hymn " Filii et Filiae," it was 
only for a moment. Many of the most renowned 
preachers in England kindly came on these Sunday 
evenings ; and though the mob listened perhaps to Mr. 
Monro's pathetic account of Hagar and her son from 
the double text, " The water was spent in the bottle," 
and " Thou art the fountain of life," their attention 
was soon diverted. The splendid and touching ser- 
mons of Mr. Bennett, of Frome, and others, had little 
or no effect on such a congregation ; on one occasion 
dogs purposely drugged were let loose in the church 
crackers were let off, musical instruments used. Out- 
side, clergymen and laymen were spat upon, pelted with 
stones, and had mud thrown at them ; in short, this mob 
behaved just as the dregs of society would behave any- 
where if they thought they might do so with impunity ; 
and indeed they had it all their own way : they had 
only to threaten the altar cross, hangings, etc., and they 
were removed. Giving in to such people was perfectly 
useless. And so it went on for months and months, 
the rector and his curates keeping on the services, many 
friends coming every Sunday to cheer and protect 
through the troublous time. Nearly through it all, the 
rector's wife and family occupied their pew with friends 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 159 

to keep them from harm. Many will remember the 
imposing form of Mr. Adams (son of Mr. Serjeant 
Adams, and brother of William Adams, author of The 
Shadow of the Cross, etc.), in this post of honour. 

Will it be believed that in Christian England, where 
law and order are the boast, such a state of things could 
go on a scandal and disgrace to every one in authority ? 
The churchwardens and local authorities did absolutely 
nothing. Mr. King and his curates, who violated no 
law, were deprived of the protection of the law. The 
magistrate, Mr. Selfe, Thames Police Court, never con- 
victed or punished one of the rioters, though they were 
over and over again brought before him, duly charged 
with brawling, etc., witnesses proving the charge. This 
was the style of justice : a shipwright had only to ask 
to be remanded for a week, that he might get witnesses 
to swear he was innocent, and Mr. Selfe most politely 
said, " Certainly, certainly, adjourn it for a week ". So 
one-sided, too, was the justice ; one day, when the 
rector, having removed a man from a pew-door, was 
summoned by him for an assault, and this summons 
came on after the business was supposed to be finished, 
Mr. King explained that his counsel and witnesses 
had left ; but Mr. Selfe refused to remand that case, and 
actually convicted the rector, and fined him five shillings ! 
Throughout, the rector and his curates did everything 
to conciliate, were such a thing possible. Of course, no 
sane person believed that there was any religious prin- 



160 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

ciple whatever in the riotous mobs thus tolerated and 
connived at. So long as the magistrates refused to con- 
vict and punish such offenders, so long did the mob 
know that they could outrage a church or anything else 
sacred. Only because it was a church with a very 
moderate and decent ritual, that has all been since 
declared lawful in the Church of England, the Evangeli- 
cal party declined to speak out against this violation 
of law and order; or, if they did speak, as at Penton- 
ville and other places, their violent language, the hasty 
false statements, the unchristian sentiments, but added 
fuel to the flame. And so it came to pass that the 
magistrates never punished, and seemed to entertain the 
monstrous notion, shared even by some of the leading 
newspapers, that this wretched mob, this collection of 
the very dregs of society, was the united voice of the 
Protestant people of England against the revived prac- 
tices of reverence, devotion, and worship in the Church 
of England ! One almost wishes that those who could 
hold such an absurd notion might have been condemned 
to spend two hours in the midst of the mob for forty or 
fifty Sundays. But if the law would not help them, 
churchmen did not stand by and do nothing ; early in 
the times of the riots a committee was formed, called 
" The St. George's Church Defence Association, for the 
maintenance of law and order in the parish church of 
St. George's-iu-the-East ". Space will only allow of my 
recording a few of the names : His Excellency G. E. J. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 161 

Gordon, British Minister, Hanover ; Hon. H. Walpole, 
G. F. Boyle (afterwards Earl Glasgow), Colin Lindsay, 
Archdeacons Denison and Churtou, Revs. Canon Jen- 
kins, R. Lee, W. J. E. Bennett, Edward Stuart, W. R. 
Wroth, Thomas Helmore, W. R. Scott, etc. ; of laymen, 
Colonel Owen, Colonel Moorsom, R. Brett, Sutherland 
Graeme, J. D. Chambers, J. Burgess Knight, James 
Mackonochie, William Elliott, J. Walter Lea, T. G. 
Ramsay, Thomas Charrington, etc., etc. These did all 
that was possible in the Ecclesiastical and other Courts. 
In July, 1860, Mr. Hansard took charge of the parish 
that the rector might go away for the needed rest, but he 
only kept it six months, declining to break his agreement 
with Mr. King as to the services. Then the bishop's chap- 
lain took the services, and the disgraceful riots came to 
an end. Nothing could exceed the kindness and sym- 
pathy shown to St. George's all through the sad time 
by the incumbents of the surrounding parishes : the 
Revs. B. C. Sangar, of St. Paul's, Shadwell ; T. T. 
Bazeley, of Poplar ; T. W. No well, of Wapping ; Mr. 
Lee, of Stepney, and others. Mr. Linklater worked in 
the mission later on. 

Through it all the work of the mission, with its varied 
helps, and the noble church of St. Peter's-in- the- East to 
crown them, prospered beyond what had been hoped, 
and our readers will remember the account of the 
funeral of Mr. Lowder, and his work. No such funeral 

had been seen in the streets of London in modern times 

ii 



1 62 RECOLLECTIONS OF OXFORD MOVEMENT. 

the record of a life and work for God in our Church 
that will live years and years after the miserable riots 
have been forgotten. 

Good work went on, and still goes on, at Eotherhithe, 
under the Eev. E. Josselyn Beck. Years before this, 
the Eev. Eichard Eawlins, of Limehouse, who died of 
the cholera in 1849, had worked on thorough Church 
lines ; his son is now Vestry Clerk of St. Gabriel's, 
Fenchurch. 



CHAPTER VII 

IT will be a pleasant change to go from the St. George's 
riots and the East End of London into some few country 
towns and villages where the Movement worked and 
spread ; but there are still a few other centres of work 
in and around London that should take a place in our 
story. One was the Church of St. Ethelburga, Bishops- 
gate, the church in which the daily Litany at midday 
for business men was so long kept up. Mr. Rodwell in 
his day was a learned writer and preacher, and published 
works on Oriental history and theology, and was much 
interested in science, the microscope, etc. ; but of late 
years the work has been well and entirely carried on by 
his curate-in-charge, the late Rev. E. N. Eldred, whose 
care and labour in a difficult position are well known. 
In the North-East we find St. Paul's, Bow Common, 
where for many years the Rev. Arthur Cotton carried 
on the work in this out-of-the-way post, where could be 
little encouragement or help from the surrounding neigh- 
bours ; and the work still goes forward. The story of St. 
Alban's, Holborn, has been so well told in the life of the 
Rev. A. H. Mackonochie, and the account there of the 

early struggles of priests and people, that there is little 

(163) 



1 64 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

that need be told here. The record of all these years is 
written in the higher lives and holy deaths of many 
hundreds of people of all classes ; the noble founder's 
hopes must have been more than realised : the constant 
prayer and praise, the rescues from sin and misery, the 
raising of life and work go on and on, with surround- 
ings that even now would tax all the courage and energy 
of the most industrious parish priest. In the early days 
of St. Matthias, Stoke Newington, a friend remembers 
walking home from there with Mr. Butterfield; he 
stopped in Gray's Inn Lane, and pointed out a place 
where was to be a church with everything to be desired, 
though it was some years before St. Alban's was con- 
secrated. A short walk westward and we come to the 
church of St. John (Evangelist), Eed Lion Square, where 
Dr. Webber, the Bishop of Brisbane, did for so many 
years a great work in parish and church. 

St. Stephen's, Shepherd's Bush, under Mr. Collett and 
Mr. Cooke, was a very early suburban centre, where 
excellent Church work was done. On July 27, 1859,, 
another suburban centre was formed, and the church of 
St. John the Evangelist, Hammersmith, was consecrated 
by the Bishop of London, from a design by Mr. Butter- 
field; it had a spacious sanctuary and good chancel (as at 
St. Matthias, the services for nearly three years had 
been conducted in a licensed room) : the service was 
Gregorian, and Mr. W. H. Monk played the organ ; a, 
great many Stoke Newington friends were there, among. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 165 

them Mr. Brett, Mr. Philip Twells, a frequent attendant 
at St. Matthias, Henry Twells, the Master of Godolphin 
Schools, close to St. John's, an admirable preacher. 
Edward Twells, afterwards bishop, was the first vicar. 
A work was begun here which was followed up by Mr. 
Cowan and others, and the parish church and several 
more district churches are now all worked on excellent 
Church lines. Nearer town again, there is the church 
of St. Mary Magdalen, Paddington, where a grand work 
in every way has been carried on for years by the late Dr. 
Temple West and his coadjutors : the veteran Church 
organist and composer, Mr. Redhead, is still there, and 
as active as ever. Then, nearer town, we come to the 
district of St. Cyprian's, Marylebone, where the Rev. 
Charles Gutch has laboured, with parts of two ordinary 
houses for his church, for nearly thirty years, gathering 
around him an earnest, hearty body of churchmen and 
churchwomen. Mr. Gutch was well known for his zeal 
and solemn earnestness in his work at St. Saviour's, 
Leeds, and at All Saints, Margaret Street, and has 
earned the greatest respect and affection. For a time, 
the Rev. Hugh Monro (brother of Edward Monro and 
Dr. Monro) worked with Mr. Gutch ; and also at St. 
Anne's, Soho ; he was for a time chaplain to a minor 
hospital. A small, thin, pale, quiet man, without the 
fire and energy of Edward Monro, but ever kind, helpful, 
and amiable to all who had need of his assistance. We 
will add to these London sketches Mr. Abbott's excel- 



1 66 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

lent work at Christ Church, Clapham, where he was for 
some years assisted by the Rev. Robert Gwynne, now 
Vicar of St. Mary the Virgin, Crown Street, Soho ; also 
the churches of St. Mary, Primrose Hill, and St. Augus- 
tine, Kilburn, and the wonderful works in connection 
with it. 

Streatham, Tooting, Balham, and many other churches 
around were soon well forward in the new work, thanks 
to the veteran Rector of Streatham, Mr. Nicholl, to Mr. 
Tarbutt of St. Peter's, Streatham, whose good start and 
labours are so well carried on by his successor, II. Baron 
Dickinson, and others. 

On our way to the country we may pass close to the 
church of St. Stephen, Lewisharn, where for more than 
twenty years the Rev. Canon R. R. Bristow has most 
successfully laboured. The church was built in the 
time of, and owes much to, the Rev. S. Russell Davies, 
to whom Mr. Bristow was curate, succeeding to the 
vicarage about 1868 : Mr. Bristow's work is well known 
both as a preacher and as a parish priest ; he was for a 
short time with Mr. Wroth, at St. Philip's, Clerkenwell. 
Chislehurst has long been a highly favoured spot, both 
for natural beauty and for Church privileges ; indeed, for 
Church folk it was, and is, a most desirable place of 
residence, and the old saying about Amberley, in Sussex, 
" Where do you live ? " " Amberley, where would you 
live ? " might be repeated of Chislehurst, with its wide 
commons, hilly views, its shady trees and woods ; happily 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 167 

without the reverse of the Amberley proverb in winter, 
when the lanes and roads were almost impassable, and 
the saying then was, " Where do you live ? " " Amber- 
ley, God help us ! " Chislehurst old village church was 
carefully restored and well kept from the year 1846, 
when the Rev. Francis H. Murray, son of a late Bishop 
of Rochester, became rector ; from that time its daily 
prayers, frequent Communions, festival services, and 
parish work have been well known ; the church left 
open some hours every day, so that the sorrowful, the 
penitent, and the thankful, the poor and the world-weary 
might for a few moments kneel before God and gain 
comfort and peace. The parish and rector have had 
their troubles : early in the morning of March 16, 
1857, the old spire was destroyed by fire, the whole 
fabric of the spire fell into the ancient tower; not a 
beam fell outside, and so the church was saved from 
destruction ; by half-past ten all danger was over, and 
at twelve the rector gathered his people into the body 
of the church to return thanks and praise for its preser- 
vation. Mr. Murray is a thorough worker as parish 
priest and divine ; is the author of some devotional 
works, and a catena of authorities on the Holy Com- 
munion. He was always much interested in Church 
hymnology, a great friend of the late Sir Henry Baker, 
and other compilers of Hymns Ancient and Modern, 
and himself did some of the work of compilation of that 
now widely used hymnal. The beautiful churchyard is 



i68 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

well known, and contains the monuments to Charles 
Lowder and some of the best churchmen of the Move- 
ment; among others, of a much loved layman, J. L. 
Anderdon, father-in-law to the rector, author of the 
Life of Bishop Ken, and several other works, about 
whom T hope to tell more when writing of the "Lay- 
men of the Church Movement ". Many of our best 
living Church laymen still make their home in Chisle- 
hurst, and no doubt fully appreciate all the privileges 
there. Mr. Murray was once curate to Mr. Clarke, 
Vicar of Northfield, near Birmingham, a staunch old 
churchman of the Keble and Williams school. Brasted, 
near Sevenoaks, had for some years, in early days, the 
privilege of a rector who was not only a great and 
learned scholar, but also one who, like Dean Church, 
could preach simple village sermons, and enter into the 
villagers' wants : this was Dr. W. H. Mill, Eegius Pro- 
fessor of Hebrew in Cambridge, and author of Univer- 
sity Sermons, and many theological works. For some 
years, too, there has been a good churchman as rector 
at Sevenoaks. In this same county of Kent, at Chels- 
field and Farnborough, in very early times, the Rev. 
Folliott Baugh was rector ; he was afterwards Vicar of 
Ilford, in Essex, all in the gift of All Souls' College, of 
which he was a fellow; at the latter town some anti- 
Church riots took place. Mr. Baugh's locum tenens at 
Farnborough was the Rev. Rowland Smith, of St. John's 
College, Oxford, author of the Church Catechism, illus- 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 169 

trated ly the Prayer Book, and The Law of the Anglican 
Church the Law of the Land, a good scholar and 
churchman. I remember in 1852 he wrote some most 
amusing wedding verses to a friend who had married 
a very musical lady, concluding : 

Extend your pity to the bard, 
With fair Cecilia for him plead ; 
That she the goodwill for the deed 
Would fain accept ; nor deem him slack 
In courtesy ; because, alack, 
Against his " Epithal " the nine 
With spiteful malice do combine. 

The Hermit of Farnborough ; indited in our Cell. 

Not far off, Mr. Caffin, of Westerham, will be re- 
membered as an early worker. At Markbeech, near 
Edenbridge, the Eev. R S. Hunt was, and is still, 
vicar; from 1857 there were daily services and frequent 
Communions ; a quiet village church, well ordered and 
cared for; Mr. Hunt was in early life curate to Sir 
George Prevost, at Stinchcombe, near Dursley, and no 
doubt was privileged to know Mr. Isaac Williams ; he 
was also a friend arid contemporary of Dr. Neale. At 
Hever, close by, was the Rev. W. Wilberforce Battye 
(formerly a curate of Brighton) ; here good Church work 
had been carried on. At St. James', Tunbridge Wells, 
Mr. Pearson stood for some time alone, and it was a 
matter of regret when he resigned such a centre of good 
work ; there is now the district church of St. Barnabas. 
At Kilndown, the parish church of Bedgbury, the seat 



i 7 o RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

of A. J. B. Beresford Hope, one of the most earnest and 
energetic laymen of the Movement, there was a very 
beautiful church, with frequent services ; and a rector, 
Mr. Harrison, heart and soul in the work. In 1844, at 
Milton-next-Gravesend, at the chapel of St. John, there 
was for a time one of the most reverent and careful 
services that had been seen up to that date ; in music 
and ritual all that loving care could give, besides good 
parish work among all the people, daily services, 
constant celebrations ; saints' day services with short 
sermons or addresses, and the same on all the black 
letter days, thus making the Prayer Book a thorough 
reality: some few may yet remember the deep regret 
felt when the Eev. W. J. Blew retired from this post ; 
his heartiest services in all ritual, liturgical, and legal 
points have ever since been given to the Church of 
England, as well as his work on hymnology, psalmody, 
etc. Of Kentish churchmen the name of the late Kev. 
W. N. Griffin, Vicar of Ospringe, Senior Wrangler, etc., 
must not be left out ; the memorial just arranged testifies 
to the long and earnest labours of this learned parish 
priest ; and Northfleet, and the work there, must be 
mentioned. 

At Richmond, in Surrey, Mr. Procter's years of faith- 
ful work are appreciated by many who reside in that 
lovely spot. At Eoehampton, Dr. G. E. Biber was 
incumbent for some years, and published many works in 
defence of the Church of England, especially replying to 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 171 

Mr. Sibthorp on the Anti-Roman line, also The Seven 
Voices of the Spirit, and on Convocation. He was a 
very large contributor to the chief religious magazines 
and periodicals, the English Review, successor to the 
Christian Remembrancer, and others. He was a native 
of Wiirtemberg, and an LL.D. of Gottingen University, 
and became a naturalised English subject before his 
ordination in 1839. Dr. Biber lived in Brighton fre- 
quently before his death ; his son, who was in holy 
orders, married the Hon. Mrs. Erskine, daughter of 
Lady Cardross. 

At Egham, in Surrey, a well-known churchman was 
rector for some years, the Rev. J. S. B. Monsell, author 
of Sermons on the Beatitudes, and more especially 
known for his hymns and poems, among them Hymns 
of Love and Praise, Parish Musings, Spiritual Songs, etc. 

At Witley, the Rev. John Chandler was rector. He 
compiled Horce Sacrce, and was one of the earliest 
translators of the old hymns ; his Hymns of the 
Ancient Church has long been scarce and out of print, 
but we see how largely it was used by the compilers of 
Hymns Ancient and Modern. A copy of this book 
had rather a curious adventure. It was lent first to a 
clergyman who was compiling a hymnal for his own 
parish, who at the end of five years wrote to borrow it 
again for the compilers of Hymns Ancient and Modern, 
but as it had never been returned the owner could 
only reply that he had no objection. Search was 



172 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

made and it was found, and used by the compilers of 
A. and M., and then again vanished from the owner's 
ken for ten or twelve years, when it was discovered by 
a lady in the Library of All Saints, Margaret Street, 
recognised by a special monogram. 

At Dorking, Mr. Joyce spent some years of work 
while his health lasted ; he is perhaps still remembered 
as a hearty, genial, and most kind-hearted parish priest 
and gentleman. At Eeigate, the Eev. J. N. Harrison 
has been for years working on the lines of the Church 
Revival. 

Sussex gives a wide field for Church work and pro- 
gress. We will just now go through a part of Hampshire, 
returning again to Sussex. 

At Basingstoke, the Kev. J. E. Millard, some time 
at Bradfield, Fellow of Magdalen College, once Head- 
master of Magdalen College School, was rector in 1864 ; 
and daily services, weekly communion, and good choral 
services were the use. Mr. Millard was the author of 
Historical Notice of Choristers, the Island Choir, and 
other works. At Highclere, near Newbury, the Kev. 
W. Brudenell Barter, of Oriel College, was rector ; 
he was a most vigorous champion of orthodoxy, and 
spoke with no uncertain sound in his G-ainsaying of 
Core in the Nineteenth Century, and in his Tracts in 
Defence of the Church, and On the Progress of In- 
fidelity ; he was, I think, brother to Warden Barter, 
of Winchester. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 173 

John Keble, the author of the Christian Year, is 
always in our mind deeply connected with Oxford and 
the Oxford Movement, and no doubt the influence of 
the boyish-looking Fellow and Tutor of Oriel was a 
great power there ; he has been well described as a 
glory to his College, present in everybody's thoughts, a 
comfort and a stay, for the slightest word he dropped 
was all the more remembered, seeming to come from a 
different and holier sphere : every word was, as it were, 
a brilliant or a pearl ; yet he gave up Oxford to assist his 
father at Fairford, and vacated his Fellowship some years 
after by marriage, so was not living much in Oxford; thus 
the man who had stirred the hearts of so many spent his 
life in the sublime work of pastoral duty at the small 
village of Hursley, in Hampshire, with a rural population 
of less than a thousand people : presented to that living 
by his friend and favourite College pupil, Sir William 
Heathcote. The Christian Year probably had a sale 
that no work of the kind ever came near, and yet it was 
said that Mr. Parker once refused to give the sum of 
sixty pounds for the copyright of the book which in a 
few years produced enough money to rebuild Hursley 
church and do many other good works. My first visit 
was during the rebuilding of the church, and the ser- 
vices were all kept up in large barns fitted up carefully 
with altar, stalls, open seats, etc. ; the bells were rung 
from the old church tower for these services, and you 
had to find your way to the barn, on entering which 



174 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

ten or twelve minutes before the time for service, you 
saw that Mr. Keble and a curate were already there in 
surplice, hood, and stole, kneeling towards the altar in 
private prayer ; and as the parish clock struck, the simple 
service began. Friends came to reside in and around 
Hursley to be near Mr. Keble ; among these was the 
Kev. K. J. Spranger, of Exeter College, a very ripe 
scholar and writer, who published a set of Confirmation 
lectures, somewhat quaint and patristic, but full of 
material for thought ; he preached at All Saints, Mar- 
garet Street, on Church colouring, and on the same 
subject at Smethwick ; these were published : he also 
preached a set of sermons on the Apocrypha, at St. 
Paul's, Brighton. Some of Mr. Keble's curates were 
men of note in the Church. One, whose name is 
always connected with Hursley, was the Eev. Peter 
Young, author of Daily Headings for a Year on the Life 
of our Lord, a most useful manual for clergy and 
teachers. Mr. Young was for seventeen years curate 
at Hursley, most of the time as a deacon, the then 
Bishop of Winchester refusing him priest's orders. The 
account of this is well told in Dr. Pusey's Life. My 
next visit to Hursley was in 1852, when the church 
was finished and open, and a very simple but beautiful 
service for a country parish it was : the cross and 
candlesticks were on the altar itself, and the church 
full of a congregation who joined heartily in the ser- 
vice ; it must have been a wonderful cootrast to Mr. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 175 

Keble's first Sunday in the old church, when, it is said, 
that after the first two lines of the General Confession 
Mr. Keble stopped and explained to the good folks 
that they were to repeat the words of the Confession 
after him. Dr. Moberly , headmaster of Winchester (after- 
wards Bishop of Salisbury), was present in the church. 
We must not pass from Hursley without naming Otter- 
bourne, the home for so many years of Miss Yonge 
authoress of the Heir of Reddiffe, and so many excel- 
lent works. Certainly, no one authoress has ever done 
the good service to Church-folk which she has done : 
her vivid pictures of young people, their hearty, healthy, 
happy, and natural home-loving lives and characters, 
their failures and successes, griefs and joys, must have 
exercised an influence that will be felt for some genera- 
tions ; she has earned the deep gratitude of many and 
many a parent and guardian ; such a work as The Pil- 
lars of the House is simply invaluable. Miss Yonge 
was ever ready, too, to help forward the work of the 
Movement in a kind and liberal way ; one instance I 
can name: a friend of mine was the editor of the 
Churchman's Companion, a magazine struggling into 
life, and Miss Yonge liberally gave Henrietta's Wish 
and the Two Guardians to be printed in the first 
instance in that magazine, giving it a good lift up- 
ward. 

At Farlington the Rev. E. T. Kichards spent a long 
life, in the simple post of a village parish priest, bright, 



176 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

genial, and hearty to the last. One of his daughters 
was the wife of Dr. Huntingford, and another of the 
Eev. Andrew Nugee, vicar of Wymering, near by ; 
after Mr. A. Nugee's death the parish and church were 
well served for many years by his brother, the Eev. 
George Nugee : of these I have spoken before. 

At Dogmersfield in this county, the Eev. Charles 
Dyson was rector : the church was rebuilt in 1843 by 
him and his sister, at a cost of 4000. He was the 
College friend of John Keble, and preserver of the 
Christian Year from destruction (Keble, 's I/ife, p. 36). The 
rectory, visited by Keble, Manning, Sir J. D. Coleridge, 
and Bishop Wilberforce, was built by Mr. Dyson, to 
whom the late Dean Butler was once curate. Miss Dyson 
was most active in the early literature of the Movement, 
and was the authoress of Ivo and Verena, Cousin Rachel, 
and several popular works published by Mr. Brunt. 

A little farther on, at the far end of the county, is 
Westbourne, near Emsworth, where for some time the 
Rev. Henry Newland was rector and vicar ; he is per- 
haps better known as the Vicar of St. Mary's Church, 
Torquay ; but at Westbourne most of his work for the 
Church was done ; he died in the prime of life, and had 
he lived would probably have been one of the leading 
men of the Church Movement : it was as a brilliant 
preacher and speaker, bold and fearless, ready at all 
points, that he made his mark in the time of his health, 
and a very strong and vigorous mark it was ; if he had 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 



1 77 



done nothing but deliver those Lectures on Tractarianism 
in the Town Hall, Brighton, at a time when party 
feeling ran very high, he would have done good service : 
it was grand to see and hear him, a fine manly pre- 
sence, and a voice that carried his words to every part 
of the large hall. In many ways the present Dean of 
Eochester reminds one of him. His dedication of those 
lectures to Archdeacon Denison is truly characteristic : 
" My dear Archdeacon, What I say in these lectures 
I think, and what I think I mean to act up to. I can, 
therefore, find no more appropriate pattern for them 
than the man who, on the Education question, as on all 
others, meant what he said and did it." He also wrote 
Confirmation and First Communion, Postils on the 
Parables, also a catena on the Ephesians and Philip- 
pians, etc. ; he partly wrote and edited the series of 
Sermons for the Christian Seasons. In all his works 
there was a fund of instruction and information, sen- 
sibly and vividly conveyed and applied. His bright 
presence and conversation were long remembered by 
those who had the privilege of knowing him. He was 
a lover of the country and a disciple of Izaac Walton, 
wrote Forest Life, The Erne, etc. 

Returning into Sussex, at Crawley, Dr. Neale's first 
curacy, the Rev. C. A. Fowler, of Oriel College, was 
for some time rector; he was also once at Bradfield, 
and later at St. Margaret's, Canterbury, a well-esteemed 

champion of all that was good and orthodox, author of 

12 



178 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

a most useful volume of parochial sermons, club ser- 
mons, The Church the Bond of Brotherhood, etc., etc. 
Horsham, with its fine old parish church, and its vicar 
for forty years, John F. Hodgson, a well-known worker 
in the cause, comes next. His coadjutor at the dis- 
trict church, John Kenrick, was the compiler of several 
manuals of devotion : The Horology, Devotions for the 
Hours of Prayer, etc. ; his signature in the dedications, 
J. K., was by some taken for that of John Keble. 

On a walking tour in this part many years back, two 
friends started from Horsham to Cocking, calling on 
the vicar, Mr. Valentine, one of the good old school. 
Near by is the sweet village of Nuthurst, with its small 
but beautiful church and churchyard, where, in the 
very early days before 1842, the Rev. W. J. Blew, 
about whom we spoke before, began the work of tfye 
revival which some years after was to be taken up and 
continued by the Eev. J. 0. MacCarogher (sometime 
Prebendary of Chichester) up to the end of his life a 
short time ago. These friends never forgot a few days 
spent at Nuthurst about 1870, with the most kind- 
hearted, genial vicar and his wife and family, including 
a special Sunday, when Dr. A. B. Evans was staying 
there and preached in the morning, and Mr. Blew in 
the afternoon : it was a never-to-be-forgotten day, quite 
refreshing to Londoners. 

They walked from there to Lavington, the beautiful 
seat which Bishop Samuel Wilberforce held by right 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 179 

of his wife, who was the eldest daughter and heiress 
of the late Mr. Sargent. There were four daughters : 
one had married Archdeacon Manning, then rector of 
Lavington, another, Mr. George Ryder. The park, 
house, and church, all close together, made a charming 
place to live in, and the archdeacon being away the 
bishop said the usual daily prayers in the church. The 
church itself was quite a model in arrangement and 
care, and as the two were walking round the church- 
yard with their knapsacks on, the servants from the 
vicarage came out and inquired if they would take any 
refreshment ; the same was done at Graffham, which 
was held with Lavmgton, and was then in charge of 
Mr. Laprimaudaye. Both churches were kept open all 
day. Away towards Pulborough is the quiet country 
village of Waltham or Coldwaltham, where the Eev. J. 
M. Saridham has laboured from 1846, after the pattern 
of a real country parson, bestowing all care and devo- 
tion on the church, services, and people, and all kind- 
ness on friends and visitors. The vicar and Mrs. Sand- 
ham were one in the quiet life of the Church's order 
and care, and kindness to all with them and around 
them ; his recent appointment to an honorary canonry 
was well deserved. Mr. Sandham's brother, General 
Sandham, of Rowdells, near by, was a thorough church- 
man, too. One special Sunday spent at Waltham 
must be recorded, when the Rev. A. R. Ashwell, Prin- 
cipal of the Theological College and Canon of Chiches- 



i8o RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

ter, was staying there, and preached two special ser- 
mons. It was quite a red-letter day to remember. 
Canon Ashwell's career, from his Cambridge course 
ending as wrangler, as Vice- Principal of St. Mark's 
College, Chelsea, and in many other important positions, 
is well known ; as a writer, preacher, and teacher, he 
ranks very highly in the record of the Church Move- 
ment ; his busy, active life in all three capacities he 
was for some years editor of the Literary Churchman 
was more than any man could keep up for very long, 
and he was not a strong man ; he died in 1879. He 
wrote a valuable essay, bringing into it urgent and solid 
reasons, against Evening Communions. At Arundel 
efforts were being made in the right direction under 
very trying surroundings. At Bognor was the girls' 
school, somewhat answering to the Woodard Middle 
Class Boys' Colleges ; and the lady superior and chap- 
lain worked bravely in the cause. Chichester, with its 
record of five deans Chandler, Hook, Burgon, Pigou, 
and Eandall, proved incontestably that deans might be 
not only thoroughly useful but essential in all that 
appertained to Divine service and worship, and the 
welfare, spiritual and temporal, of all around them. At 
Bosham, Mr. Mitchell was a sound churchman, and his 
church, a fine old one, carefully kept. On a fine sum- 
mer evening, few things are more delightful than to 
take a boat at high tide, row out half a mile, and then 
rest to enjoy the lovely view backed by the fine Downs. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 181 

At Littlehainpton the Rev. C. Rumball has worked 
well for nearly thirty years, and done much in what is, 
perhaps, the most trying sort of place a small, popular 
seaside town, with its overcrowded and shifting 
population. At Shoreham one goes back in memory 
many years, even to the solemn opening of Old Shore- 
ham vicarage in Mr. Wheeler's time, and the beginning 
of Mr. Woodard's scheme for the religious education 
of the thousands of middle class youths growing up in 
our midst. This was started in a few small houses in 
Shoreham, and like the Church Movement, of which it 
was a sort of practical first fruits, has moved forward 
till one is lost in amazement at the many handsome 
buildings, with chapels, cloisters, and all the adjuncts 
of the best colleges, at Hurstpierpoint, Lancing, and 
Ardingly in Sussex only, besides those at Denstone in 
the Midlands and elsewhere. To see the very small 
beginnings in those few old tumble-down houses and 
then the present proportions of this scheme is indeed a 
lesson of patience and utter perseverance. Here, too, 
we will pause to speak of the inmates of that same old 
Shoreham vicarage from 1857 to 1876, or rather 1872, 
when the wife died. These were the Rev. James B. 
Mozley, Regius Professor of Divinity and Canon of 
Christ Church, and his wife, twin sister of Mrs. John- 
son, widow of Manuel Johnson, the University 
Astronomer, in whose house Newman spent his last night 
in Oxford : they were daughters of Dr. Ogle. After more 



182 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

than twenty years of work with Newman, Pusey, and 
the great leaders in the Church Movement, Canon 
Mozley settled in Old Shoreham, and lived there as 
much as his other work would allow, for he never left 
off writing till the very last. They loved their old 
Sussex parish, and were indeed much beloved there. 
They lived much for others, and their life was one of 
cheerfulness and happiness, and they both retained a 
youthfulness of spirit that was beautiful to see. It 
was at times difficult to recognise in the sweet quiet 
appearance of the Eector of Old Shoreham, the man 
who in 1833 and onwards, had set us all on fire with 
his Essays on Laud,Strafford,etc.,in the British Critic and 
Christian Remembrancer ; but in reply to this thought 
once expressed, Mrs. Mozley would smile and say, 
" But surely you don't expect any one to go on letting 
off fireworks for ever ! " A more delightful book than 
his letters, etc., published by his sister Anne in 1885 it 
is difficult to conceive. I must not omit to name 
Cuckfield, and with it the Kev. T. A. Maberley, 
one of the most hearty, genial, and kind-hearted of 
parish priests, who spent a long life devoted to his 
church and parish. Buxted, also, was privileged in 
early days, and has advanced since, with a church built 
and endowed by the Eev. A. D. Wagner, of St. Paul's, 
Brighton, who has a county house there ; he ap- 
pointed the vicar, the Rev. J. B. de la Bere (formerly 
John Edwards, of St. Paul's, Knightsbridge and Prest- 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 183 

bury) : but Mr Wagner really belongs to Brighton, of 
which I shall speak further on. 

It is not easy to tell, in any short space, about East 
Grinstead and the very wonderful man whose name it 
recalls to our mind. A mere bibliography of his 
writings would require more space than this whole 
chapter occupies ; and from that you would not realise 
what manner of man was John Mason Neale, and 
the way of life of one of the most learned of English 
churchmen, worthy to be ranked with some of the 
chiefest divines, poets, liturgiologists, historians and 
hymn writers that ever lived. He died certainly in 
what might be called the prime of life, but the amount 
of his work was much more than most men accomplish 
in a very long life. He was the son of the Rev. Cor- 
nelius Neale, one of the best known of the extreme 
Puritan school ; who, after his friend, John Mason 
Good, a learned and pious physician, named his son. 
We do not know how soon Dr, Neale broke away 
from the early traditions of his home, though we do 
know that throughout his life he retained all that was 
good and true in that system, its reverence, earnest- 
ness, and great regard for Holy Scripture ; and we know 
that when at home as a youth in Brighton he attended 
with his mother Christ Church in that town, then, and for 
years, under the charge of the Rev. James Vaughan, one 
of the best and most earnest of the Evangelical school 
of the day. Probably the first stir of the Catholic re- 



1 84 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

vival reached Mr. Neale as an undergraduate at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, with such companions as Mr. Beres- 
ford Hope, E. T. Codd, M. S. Gillis, F. A. Paley. It 
has been said that the revival there touched different 
points from Oxford, and worked in a different way. 
The questions which sent Oxford men to Rome certainly 
did not at first disturb University life at Cambridge. 
Very early in his life there, Mr. Neale was one of the 
leaders who, accepting the great idea of the Catho- 
licity of the Church of England, set themselves to work 
out how the outward aspects of English public worship 
might be made most reasonably and intelligently to cor- 
respond to the ideals and best traditions of the ancient 
and historic Church ; the Cambridge Camden Society 
and the Ecclesiologist were founded with this express 
object, and not by any means as matters of mere archaeo- 
logical and antiquarian research. It was to exercise a 
practical influence on all the churches, services, and 
worship ; and a great many of the early papers and 
pamphlets of the society were written by Mr. Neale, the 
famous History of Pews among the number. He was 
ordained very early in life, and worked for a short 
time as a curate at Crawley in Sussex, but a threatened 
affection of the lungs obliged him to give up that work ; 
and though he tried Penzance and other places, Madeira 
had to be his home for the greater part of three years. 
But before that, on July 27, 1842, Mr. Neale married 
Sarah Norman Webster, of the talented family of the 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 185 

Attorney-General. He never ceased writing and trans- 
lating; he became master of twenty languages, and 
before going to Madeira taught himself Portuguese, that 
he might readily read the great writers and divines in 
that language. In Madeira was written much of the 
History of the Holy Eastern Church, and he there always 
had five or six works on hand, tales, allegories, 
hymns, histories, etc., etc. In 1843, also, was written, 
jointly with the Rev. B. Webb, Durandus on Sym- 
bolism, a book now long out of print, and of very high 
value. On any point where there was a need to stand 
up and defend the honour of God and His Church, Mr. 
Neale was ready and well-armed, and the number of 
smaller pamphlets and essays was wonderful. His 
Lectures on Church Difficulties was quite a volume of 
defence. He was, as has been said, impulsive and 
excitable, but thorough to the backbone ; chivalrous and 
generous, warmly affectionate in all relations of life, 
with a wonderful memory and great facility in acquiring 
languages. He did not leave Madeira till May, 1845, 
and was able to winter in England for the rest of his 
life. By this time his works began to be known and 
appreciated, and he never left off writing till the last 
year of his life, 1866. Space will not enable me to 
name a fiftieth part of them. Before he left Madeira 
he had revised the Portuguese version of the Prayer 
Book for the S.P.C.K., and had translated Bishop 
Andrewes' Devotions into Portuguese; he also wrote 



i86 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Murray's Guide to Portugal. In 1845 Mr. Neale 
won the Seatonian Prize Poem, and gained it for ten 
successive years. The Rev. Thomas Hankinson was, I 
think, the only man who came near so large a number. 
His power of versification was wonderfully rapid ; some 
of these Seatonians were begun and ended in thirty-six 
hours. In 1858 Mr. Neale gained the one on Egypt ; 
after he had written the poem, he wrote another on the 
same subject in hexameters, the metre of Longfellow's 
Evangeline. The prize was given to the first, and 
<20 to the second one, without any idea that they 
were both by one hand. This latter was a grand poem, 
and contained those splendid lines on his first text at 
Crawley, sixteen years before, and is almost a picture of 
his own course. 

Then from the Throne of God, that Throne where the weary have 

refuge, 
Where in the midst of distress there is calm, that mandate was 

uttered 

Mandate not uttered alone that day for the thousands of Judah, 
But to all ages addressed and to all generations " Go forward,"" 
Forward when all seems lost, when the cause looks utterly hopeless, 
Forward when brave hearts fail, and to yield is the rede of the 

coward, 

Forward when friends fall off, and enemies gather around thee ; 
Thou, though alone with thy God, though alone in thy courage, 

go forward. 

Nothing it is with Him to redeem or by few or by many, 
Help, though deferred, shall arrive; ere morn the night is at 

darkest. 

In 1846 Mr. Neale took the wardenship of Sackville 
College, East Grinstead, an ancient foundation for pen- 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 187 

sioners; a fine old building with chapel, dining hall, 
and warden's apartments value 25 a year : it was ;i 
home, and that was all the preferment that ever fell to 
the lot of this great divine, historian, and poet. As I 
have said, Dr. Neale was affectionate in all relations of 
life ; his wedding letter to a friend, ten years after his 
own marriage, was characteristic. 

" Sackville College, 

"February 9th, 1852. 

" MY DEAR , 

"I had not the least idea the event which I 
heard of yesterday was in contemplation, and so felt quite 
surprised as well as very glad. Pray accept my best 
congratulations ; they must, of course, be quite general, 
inasmuch as I know not your fair bride's name. To her 
indeed, if she will accept them, I can offer them more 
particularly because I do know you; I know not a 
better wish to give you than the last verse of the 128th 
psalm. I see you just avoided Septuagesima. I know 
not where you are, but if it should be anywhere so that 
you could give us a look in on your way back I hope 
you will do so ; you would like to see the College, and 
1 shall have the pleasure of being introduced to your 
bride. 

" Yours very truly, 

"J. M. NEALE." 

That visit was not paid for some time, and indeed 



1 88 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

not till the early struggles of Sackville College and its 
warden were nearly over. They were years of mis- 
understanding and prejudice against daily prayers, cele- 
brations with decent ceremonial, and frequent preaching 
and teaching bestowed on the place and its inmates ; 
a struggle in which it took years and years of patient 
waiting and working to convince Bishop Gilbert, of 
Chichester, that here was a staunch loyal son of the 
Church of England, and one of her noblest defenders at 
the time Newman and a few of the best known Trac- 
tarians deserted her ; a man who knew more about 
Church history and liturgiology, the true story of 
the Eastern Churches, and the Western claims, than 
half the modern doctors of the Eoman Church put 
together ; the last man to believe that no true Church 
could exist out of visible communion with Kome. 
With reference to the Privy Council judgments, his 
Few Words of Hope in the Present Crisis of the English 
Church met with deep gratitude from thousands of 
anxious hearts ; and the Sisters of East Grinstead have 
done a real work for all time by reprinting it in full in 
the St. Margaret's Magazine for January, 1892 (Skeffing- 
ton & Co.). Many of Dr. Neale's early works are un- 
attainable now, and it is also a most happy thought of 
the sisters to reprint at times portions of essays, poems, 
hymns, etc., from these scarce works in their magazine. 
One of my friend's visits to Sackville College was when 
most of those early trials were over, and the beginning 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 189 

of Dr. JSTeale's great practical work of the grand nursing 
sisterhood he founded was in progress. In person Dr. 
Neale was tall and dark, and at first might be thought 
stern in expression, reminding one of the portrait of 
another great divine of the Church, Bishop Jeremy 
Taylor. After going over the old building, the pensioners' 
rooms, the restored beautiful chapel, the hall and the 
warden's rooms, commanding lovely Sussex views, my 
friend was introduced to the study, literally packed and 
lined and hung across with books ; at the four corners 
were four desks, at which the warden always stood to 
work. At one desk, perhaps, the history of the Eastern 
Church was in progress, at another poems and hymns, 
at another commentaries on the Psalms, and at the 
fourth one of the brilliant tales or stories, such as 
Agnes de Tracey, Ayton Priory, Shepperton Manor> 
Duchenier, Tales of Christian Heroism and Endurance,. 
etc. 

Staying a day or two my friend realised the wonder- 
fully busy life led by this scholar and priest. Calls 
and claims on all sides, duties to the sisters, the orphans, 
the old people of the College ; and duties to those, not 
a few, who asked for solutions on knotty points of 
theology, canon law, history, politics, and litur- 
giology. 

On the Sunday afternoon of the visit a sister was- 
nursing at some distant town, and was in some difficulty 
or trouble. Mr. Neale went off by the first train,. 



igo RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

asking my friend to take the evening service in the 
College chapel, and to read one of his sermons. No 
duty seemed to be neglected. He wrote and printed 
several volumes of reading for the aged, throwing 
himself into the feelings, hopes, and fears of the old 
pensioners. Children were especially cared for in 
sermons, tales, allegories, and hymns. It would fill a 
page were I to try and name all the hymns only, Dr. 
Neale wrote. A very large proportion of Hymns 
Ancient and Modern was from his pen. All this was 
done, and home duties were carefully and brightly ful- 
filled. It would be out of my province to describe 
how, in the midst of all this absorbing outside work, 
his home, with Mrs. Neale, and his five children grow- 
ing up, was his delight and recreation, as they them- 
selves have said (in the St. Margaret's Magazine, 
January, 1893). " Surely children never had a happier 
home : the nursery and all its patter, hopping, skipping, 
and singing never disturbed papa ; then the walks, the 
talks, the teaching, the reading, the writing. Shake- 
speare, Milton, Southey, Coleridge, Hood and others, 
all introduced to those children in due course." But 
what of Mrs. Neale ? We admire the bright scholar 
and divine, but we must indeed stop to think most 
highly of his helpmeet ; very few women can be the 
wife of a great genius with anything like full success, 
but Mrs. Neale was this and more ; one in all his 
hopes, plans, works, and wishes, with a courage and 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 191 

energy that no complication of troubles ever seemed 
to quell, supplying exactly what might be needed in 
his simple, trustful life (a grandmother, as we used to 
say, to the sisterhood), musical, which he was not, and 
indeed the very stay of such a man in all joy and sor- 
row. I have not space to say more, but can add from 
one who knew him well that he was most unworldly, 
unselfish, had very modest views of his own works, 
and was never one to drive a bargain about them. One 
instance I remember when his publisher spoke highly, 
as every one did, of that masterpiece and brilliant his- 
torical tale TJieodora Phranza, or the Siege of Constanti- 
nople, and suggested another story of the kind. " My 
good friend, I couldn't write a book to order," was his 
reply ; and that was true ; all his work was spontaneous, 
suggested by his own great genius. As in his home 
so in his life and habits all was most simple and frugal. 
Sleeping once at a friend's house in Brighton, there was 
much thought what he would like to eat after a late 
lecture ; the good man preferred the baked potatoes to 
anything else on the table. Dr. Neale died in August, 
1866, and his funeral was attended by hundreds of 
clergy and laity, and the procession reached half a mile 
along the street of East Grinstead. Mrs. Neale out- 
lived her husband some eight or nine years. One of 
her last letters to my friend was to express her thank- 
fulness that her youngest, Margaret, was about to be 
married to Malcolm, the son of Mr. Sutherland Graeme 



i 9 2 RECOLLECTIONS OF OXFORD MOVEMENT. 

(of whom I have already spoken) ; then, in the last words, 
the true mother's heart spoke, " there is only one thing 
one word the Orkneys for her home ! and that is 
dismaying to her mother ". The saddest of her letters 
is concerned with the appointment of a warden as suc- 
cessor to Dr. Neale, at Sackville College ; imagine the 
patron, Earl Delaware, being induced to go back to a 
warden contemplated by the statutes, a single man (in 
that large home), a layman in that dear chapel, a man 
incapable and afflicted, who had been an army surgeon 
and had resided in the town about one year ! Such an 
appointment was surely an indignity to Dr. Neale's 
memory. The wondrous way in which the sisterhood 
nourished and increased after his death showed the 
power and attraction of the life of him who founded it. 



CHAPTEK VIII. 

IN a former chapter I spoke of the lonely life led by 
Mr. Cook at South Benfleet, but it was much the sort of 
life led by many of the country vicars in Essex before 
the day of railways ; and in out-of-the-way parishes the 
vicar, no doubt, became much of a farmer, and more 
and more removed from the refinement and culture 
which distinguished the clergy of London and the large 
towns. And it was just this lowering in manners, and 
mode of service, that the Church Movement, when 
some of its endless pamphlets, tracts, sermons, lectures, 
verses and tales penetrated so far, influenced for a better 
state of things. 

Perhaps it was one of these old-fashioned vicars, half 
farmer, half parson, of whom Bishop Blomfield related 
the story, how he was invited to dinner at Fulham 
Palace, and, arriving between six and seven, found the 
party in the full enjoyment of afternoon tea; he enjoyed 
the tea and cake, etc., and concluded that dinner was 
over; in this idea he was strengthened when the 
servants brought in the silver candlesticks, and one of 
them showed him to his bedroom. Then he thought 
what early and primitive hours the bishop kept. How- 

13 ( J 93) 



i 9 4 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

ever, lie partly undressed and lay down on the bed, 
and, being tired with his unusual journey, was almost 
dozing, when there came a knock at the door, and 
"Dinner's on table, sir," effectually roused him; he 
was rather late at the dinner-table, and, of course, 
apologised ; such an unpleasant contretemps can hardly 
occur again. 

We are now thinking of the brighter state of things 
which set in after 1840 ; and in this same county of 
Essex there were many of these bright spots. The 
remembrance of one such place has quite recently oc- 
curred, and again it is Mr. Hey gate who has recorded a 
little about the life of the late Vicar of Leigh, near South- 
end, to whom he was curate for some years. Mr. King, 
the vicar, was brother to the Bishop of Lincoln, and a 
most worthy worker in his steps. Just before reaching 
Southend, the fine old tower quite a seamark of St. 
Clement, Leigh, stands out boldly, and the church and 
services were a blessing to many of the visitors to 
Southend, who gladly walked out there. On Sunday 
afternoon the grand old church (Late Perpendicular) 
was a sight to record ; it was quite full of blue-jackets, 
who joined well in the bright, hearty service, and 
listened to the splendid preaching of Mr. Heygate, Mr. 
King, and sometimes the bishop (then chaplain at 
Cuddesden College), when he was staying at the 
vicarage. 

A little lower down is Corringham, where the Rev. S. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 195 

S. Greatheed was for some years vicar. He was a high 
authority on old Church music, a contributor to the 
Ecclesiologist, and set to music some of Dr. Neale's 
beautiful carols. 

Higher up again, towards Mersea Island, is South- 
minster, a village five miles from the sea ; it has a large 
Perpendicular Cruciform church with Norman work. 
Here, for many years, the Kev. G. C. Berkeley was 
vicar, a thorough churchman of the Keble and Williams 
school, and a very bright presence among his friends in 
London on his occasional visits there. 

At Chelmsford, Colchester, and Hadleigh (especially 
the latter, so well restored under Chancellor Espin), 
things were well advancing, and also at Messing, where 
the Eev. T. Henderson was vicar; he was one of the 
preachers at St. Bartholomew's, Moor Lane, when the 
Church revival was begun there with that series of 
sermons, " Advent Warnings ". Higher up still, on 
the borders of Suffolk, Mr. Foster, Vicar of Foxearth, 
had daily service and frequent Communions. 

In 1850 the fine old church of Halstead was restored 
while Archdeacon Burney (now Vicar of St. Mark's, 
Surbiton) was vicar. 

In another part of Essex, the good work by Arch- 
deacon Grant, of Eomford, should be told of ; and not 
far, at Langdon Hill, is the Kev. Alfred Poole, one of 
the St. Barnabas clergy who suffered in the misunder- 
standing and outcry about Confession. His rector, Mr. 



ig6 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Liddell, stood by him loyally. At Barking, Mr. Liddell, 
afterwards of St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, should be 
thought of. 

Coggeshall, too, with its old church and many in- 
teresting remains of the Abbey, etc., should be named. 
Bishop Mant was vicar there in 1813 ; he was chaplain 
to Archbishop Sutton, and in full correspondence with 
Joshua Watson, Bishop Van Mildert, and others, about 
the publications of the S.P.C.K. ; and among them was 
his Bible and Prayer Book Commentary, and other 
valuable work for those times. Mr. W. J. Dampier 
was, at the time I refer to, and for some years, vicar 
here ; and though not very strong, was well known as 
an excellent churchman, and a kind, hard-working 
parish priest; to the poor and afflicted he was ever 
most gentle and helpful. One curious case of accident 
occurred in his parish, in which Mr. Dampier gave great 
assistance in many ways. A fine young fellow fell from 
a large fruit tree on to the ground, and entirely 
lost the use of his hands and feet. As he lay on his 
bed, week after week, it was his great trouble that all 
means of earning a living seemed to be impossible. Then 
it occurred to him that if he could hold a pencil in his 
mouth he could copy some drawings or prints, and he 
was encouraged by the vicar and others, and persevered 
till in course of time he could make drawings and etch- 
ings with his mouth, while his kind friends helped him 
to dispose of them ; and so he was able to earn a little. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 197 

I remember seeing some of these copies of Vandyke's 
Charles the First and other heads, and they were etched 
with wonderful care and accuracy. Mr. Dampier took 
deep interest in this poor man all his life, and often 
helped to dispose of his works. 

Mr. Neave, of Epping, was well known as a good 
churchman. 

We now come to Harlow, a small market town, with 
a large parish church and two district churches St. 
John the Baptist and St. Mary's. In 1835, the Eev. 
Charles Miller, son of a former vicar, was appointed ; he 
was fresh from Oxford, where he had been a Demy of 
Magdalen, and was entirely in accord with the early 
Tractarian writers and leaders. He was a student, and 
somewhat eccentric. The subject of tithes and offerings 
in Old Testament and Christian history he made his 
study ; and a year after his appointment the famous 
Tithe Commutation Act was passed, by which tithes 
were commuted for a rent charge, based on average 
prices of wheat, barley, oats, etc., for seven years. 

From 1836 to 1847 there were various amendments 
to this Act, and during the whole of these years Mr. 
Miller waged tremendous war with the principle of the 
Tithe Commutation Act, denouncing it as a distinct 
denial of God's providence, holding that the Divine will 
was that the tithe should depend on the prosperity and 
value of the land, the blessing and increase in crops, 
flocks, and cattle, and so might vary from time to time. 



198 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

The following is the title of one of his protests, and will 
give our readers some idea of the bold, earnest, and 
enthusiastic Vicar of Harlow : 

" Tithes, or Heathenism. Eeasons for not accepting 
the Tithe Commissioners' award, most dutifully and 
respectfully submitted to the Queen of England, the 
Parliament, and the People, in a Second Letter to the 
Eight Honourable Sir George Grey, M.P., Her Majesty's 
Secretary of State for the Home Department, by Charles 
Miller, M.A., Vicar of Harlow." 

It is only fair to say that however eccentric or quix- 
otic he was thought, he had indeed the courage of his 
convictions, as for years and years he refused to 
receive any tithes at all. 

I will not inflict upon my readers much more of so 
dry a subject as tithes, but their sacred origin and 
history in connection with the course of the Church's 
work make them a subject of interest to many church- 
men. Anyway, much attention was drawn to them 
during the years following the Tithe Commutation Act; 
and in 1846 a most valuable society was founded, called 
the "Tithe Eedemption Trust," to encourage spiritual 
and lay owners of alienated tithes to restore them to the 
spiritual purposes for which they were originally ordained, 
to assist such owners, either by grants of money or by 
paying the expenses of conveyance, or by legal advice, 
in applying their tithes towards relieving the spiritual 
destitution of the parish or chapelry whence they arose, 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 199 

by annexing such tithes to the endowment of the parish 
church or chapel, or by endowing with such tithes new 
district churches therein. Part of the plan was to make 
applications to Parliament to facilitate the means of 
accomplishing these objects. Such names as Lord John 
Manners, Rev. W. W. Malet of Ardeley, Sir Stephen 
Glynne, Sir Pioundell Palmer, Dr. Irons, Arthur Powell, 
Charles Ding wall, with the archbishop and several 
bishops, were among the founders and patrons. This 
society continues its labours still in Bridge Street, 
Westminster. The work was thoroughly practical ; by 
1864 tithes had by their aid been restored to the Church 
to the amount of 1035 per annum, and in June, 1885, 
tithes amounting to 4541 had been restored. 

Mr. Miller, at Harlow, had frequent services, weekly 
Communion, and a simple but careful ritual. About 
1839, the district church of St. John the Baptist was 
built for a distant part of the long straggling parish; 
and it is in this church and its incumbent I would seek 
to interest my readers, with the record of one of the most 
saintly lives in connection with the Church Movement 
not unworthy, if all could be told, to rank with that 
of the Cure d'Ars such a life had a good influence on 
all who were trying to follow in the steps of holy ex- 
amples. This was Charles Middleton McLeod, who was 
curate of Latton, an adjoining parish; and when the 
district church of St. John the Baptist was built, Mr. 
Miller offered him the incumbency; there he worked 



200 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

for more than thirty years with the stipend of a curate, 
and was but little known out of his own parish. There 
is not a great deal to tell, but what little there is should 
certainly be valued by good Church folk. 

Charles Middleton McLeod was born at Wheeley in 
Essex, where his father, Dr. Eoderick McLeod, was 
rector, about the year 1800. Some years after, Dr. 
McLeod became Eector of St. Anne's, Soho, then an 
important parish in London, holding rank with St. 
James's, Piccadilly, and St. George's, Hanover Square. 
I fear there is nothing to tell of Mr. McLeod's youth. 
His mother died probably when he was quite young ; 
and there is no doubt that the quiet, devout life of 
active goodness which his elder sister, Wilhelmina, led 
at St. Anne's, had much to do with her brother Charles's 
course, which developed into the higher life fostered by 
the Church revival. 

His visits to London were not frequent, and even 
during his father's lifetime he was never, I think, in St- 
Anne's Church on a Sunday ; he sometimes took a 
Baptism or Churching in the week-day, and, as I have 
said, alarmed the old parish clerk by his deep reverence 
and devotion, as if he quite realised the sacredness of 
holy places and things, even though they were not so 
arranged as to impress it visibly upon us, as happily 
they often are now. 

It seemed as if he never forgot that he was the 
servant of his Divine Master. His time, his labour, and 



OXFORD MOVEMENT 201 

all the money he possessed were spent on the Church 
and poor of that Master ; to speak of his way of life as 
simple, would but feebly express the strictness and entire 
self-denial of his daily course. He allowed himself 
nothing that was not absolutely necessary ; the utmost 
recreation that he gave himself on his few visits to 
London was to hear some good sacred music or concert, 
to which he was taken by some old friends in his 
father's parish. When in town, he was sure to be 
at the early service or celebration at Margaret Chapel 
or Westminster Abbey. Few country churches could 
compare with St. John's, Harlow, for plain and simple 
order; though it was but an ordinary building, with 
choir stalls, screen, stained-glass windows, organ, 
organ chamber (almost the last addition he lived 
to make), frontals, hangings, vestments, and an altar 
triptych of the Crucifixion, painted by O'Connor, 
it was yet a beautiful home that will speak of its first 
vicar for many a day to come. He himself attended to 
every minute detail of his church and service, and with 
his own hand prepared every single thing for that 
worship up to the very last Sunday, when he could 
scarcely walk to the pulpit for his evening sermon ; 
nothing was too small, down to the least ornament or 
vessel, and its belongings, for his own special care. 
During his incumbency, everything that could add to 
the goodness of church, churchyard, and service was by 
degrees procured ; and for this not only would he devote 



202 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

all moneys that came into his possession, and the offer- 
ings of a few who knew him and his work, but he would 
also part with any personal thing that was not really 
needed by him. To obtain what was needful for his 
church or poor he would give all that could be spared 
by the utmost frugality. He strictly kept all fast-days, 
Lent, and fasting Communion, with a bright, cheerful 
way through it all, marking saints' days and festivals 
by some changes ; and on Sundays, for many years, had 
some ten or twelve of his poorest parishioners to dine 
with him in summer time out on his lawn. No one 
could visit his home plain almost to meanness with its 
simple necessaries without feeling that his life, and all 
that he had, was devoted to others. To stay a few days 
in his house, as a friend once said, was a distinct privi- 
lege, and going back to town and business was like 
entering another world. The early and other celebra- 
tions and services, which he took all those years single- 
handed, were so many and so frequent that few could be 
found physically able to go through them. His choir 
and its work were one of his chief cares ; and as he was 
a true gentleman of refined and cultured taste, he made 
the very best of what was after all but a plain village 
choir. The musical parts of his late celebration were 
admirably sung by eight or ten of the elder girls in his 
school, who sat in the seat nearest to the chancel. He 
was the friend and adviser of every one of his choir, and 
would write to those who had left his parish and care, 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 203 

and keep them up to the better way of life that he had 
taught and shown to them. 

Though naturally of a shy and retiring nature, there 

was one occasion in each year when he came, as it 

were, more prominently before his friends, and that was 

on the dedication festival of his church, when he would 

issue invitations to friends in London and elsewhere. 

On each St. John Baptist's Day as it came round, for 

nearly twenty years, early in the morning, some thirty 

or forty ladies and gentlemen might be seen on the 

platform of the Eastern Counties Kailway, on their 

way to spend the day at Harlow ; many of the clergy, 

churchmen, and churchwomen of London, from Stoke 

Newington, St. Barnabas, St. Bartholomew's, from his 

old parish of St. Anne and others, all looking forward 

with pleasure to do honour to this country dedication 

feast, and join in good wishes for the vicar, who never 

failed to welcome every individual visitor with kind 

words and smile. I must record the names of a few. 

The well-known and beloved physician, Mr. Brett, the 

founder of St. Matthias and the promoter of other 

good schemes of church-building, was seldom absent 

from these gatherings, his genial presence brightening, 

as it were, the whole day, and with him were often his 

closest friends. The names of Beck, Porter, Hazard, 

Nottingham ; the Eev. T. Simpson Evans, Vicar of 

Shoreditch ; Rev. W. Scott, of Christ Church, Hoxton; 

J. Fuller Russell, Vicar of St. James's, Enfield ; the 



204 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Eev. W. J. Blew, and very many others, come to one^s 
mind. The twenty-five miles were soon travelled, and 
the London visitors were at once in cordial intercourse 
with the country vicars and friends in the neighbour- 
hood. The influence of this one saintly man was 
surely felt all around ; and more reverence, order, and 
frequent services were to be found in many a quiet, 
out-of-the-way church in the neighbourhood. The 
preachers on these occasions were some of the very 
best men in London and the country. Among his 
neighbours were Mr. Hough ton, of Matching ; Hill, of 
Sheering; Moody, of Gilston (Gilston Park was the 
residence for years of J. Plumer Ward, the author of 
Tremaine y and a great writer and politician in the days 
of Lord Melville and Lord Liverpool) ; Malet, Vicar of 
Ardeley, near Buntingford, and many others. 

A near neighbour of some renown was W. S. Cope- 
land, Vicar of Farnham, on the other side of the rail- 
way, for some time curate to Dr. Newman at Littlemore, 
and a great writer and translator in the literature and 
hymnology of the Tractarian Movement, editor also 
of Dr. Newman's Parochial Sermons. On his death in 
1885, part of his fine library, through his executor, 
Mr. Copeland Borlase, found a home let us hope a 
congenial one in the Library of the National Liberal 
Club. 

There was an early celebration, the choral one took 
place at eleven, when a sermon was preached, and about 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 205 

one rich and poor dined together in a large tent. After 
dinner there were toasts and speeches (these latter 
were anything but dry, and were thoroughly enjoyed 
by every one) ; hearty interchanges of views as to the 
way in which the work they all cared so much for, was 
making way; good sound Christian politics, and no 
unkindness or sarcasm ; and now and then the Vicar of 
Harlow would bring in his subject of tithes and offer- 
ings, and speak very straightly about trade and busi- 
ness, and what was meant by honesty and fair dealing 
therein. 

One year there was a grand patriarchal clergyman in 
the company, and he preached and spoke too with all 
the vigour and brightness of youth, and interested and 
amused us all with an account of his Gloucestershire 
parish ; this was the Kev. James Davies, Vicar of Aben- 
hall, not far from Stroud, then in his eightieth year; 
this was the vicar to whom Mr. Thomas Keble in 1829 
introduced Isaac Williams for his title and first curacy, 
the curacy of Windrush (on which Thomas Keble had 
been ordained fourteen years before). Isaac Williams 
records it in his autobiography : " I was ordained at 
Christmas, and lived there for two years with James 
Davies, my vicar, who has been my most esteemed 
friend ever since ". 

About 150 of the poor sat down to dinner, and even- 
song with a sermon was at half-past three. Tea was 
at five, and the rest of the day was much enjoyed, and 



206 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

spent in various games and amusements for the school 
children. The reality and earnestness of this simple 
festival impressed all who had the happiness to join 
in it, and to the London folk especially it was most 
refreshing and encouraging. 

This dedication festival was discontinued about 1861, 
so far as invitations to friends at a distance went, be- 
cause it involved an outlay that the vicar could not 
spare from the church and parish ; but it was always 
kept for the school children, choir and poor, and he 
took care that they should thoroughly enjoy St. John 
the Baptist's Day as it came round, up to the last that 
he saw on earth. 

And as his life was, so was his death, on Septua- 
gesima, 1871. In his last illness, though he was in 
much pain, he still thought of others, and also calmly 
and clearly gave all directions for his own burial to 
every particular, and received his last communion from 
an old friend and neighbour. He was, by his own 
desire, laid in the church till the funeral, in the vest- 
ments in which he had been wont for years to celebrate 
the blessed Sacrament, and many went in to pray and 
take a farewell look at him who had been to them a 
pattern and a shepherd true indeed. 

The funeral was one to be remembered. Such a life, 
though most quiet and self-renouncing, could not but 
attract, and very many were there to whom such a loss 
could not easily be supplied. The hymns "Jesus lives," 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 207 

and " Brother, now thy toils are over," were sung. 
After the burial service lesson, holy communion was 
celebrated by the Vicar of St. Mary Magdalen^s Church, 
Harlow, served by Mr. Miller, vicar of the parish 
church. The church was full of earnest, sorrowing 
parishioners and friends. Among the special mourners 
were his friend and executor, the Rev. A. B. Goulden, 
formerly Curate of St. Peter's, Vauxhall, and now for 
twenty years an earnest labourer in his poor South 
London parish of St. Alphege, Southwark ; Mr. and 
Mrs. Gauntlett, Mr. Perry Watlington, the squire of the 
parish, the vicars of the surrounding parishes, and other 
old friends. The service was bright, as he would have 
had it. The grave was at the back of the chancel, a 
spot selected by himself. 

His will was written as he dictated, with a profession 
of faith and an offering of his soul to God in deepest 
humility and sense of uuworthiness. He had kept but 
little money, though in his life-time money had been 
left to him ; he left remembrances to the poor and his 
god-children, etc., and the rest was to go to keep his 
old servant and his wife for their lives. The other dis- 
trict church of St. Mary Magdalen's, Harlow, has a good 
record of real work up to the present day. The vicar is 
Mr. Elwell, whose labours have been successful in rais- 
ing a substantial and beautiful church in the place of 
the very small original church of the district. 

In making a longer record of such lives as this, and 



208 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

of Mr. Cook, of South Benfleet, it may be borne in 
mind that they are but specimens of many hundred 
such lives which could be written, and that it was by 
such that the Movement spread and affected the daily 
lives of many thousands. 

There are two other short sketches of country clergy. 
One is of the Eev. Robert Alfred Suckling, Perpetual 
Curate of Bussage, near Stroud, whose memoir, with 
correspondence, was written by Mr. Isaac Williams in 
1852, to perpetuate the influence of such a character 
beyond his immediate circle ; and from this some of 
these notes are taken. He was the eldest son and heir 
of the ancient family of that name at Woodton, in 
Norfolk. The name is familiar : Sir John Suckling, the 
poet, and his father (who was privy councillor to Kings 
James and Charles I.) were of the same family, as were 
the mother of Lord Nelson and her brother, Captain 
Suckling. R. A. Suckling was a sailor from 1831 to 
1839. He left the sea from no feeling of disappoint- 
ment, but he aspired to some higher and better life, and 
this feeling was strengthened by having been twice 
restored, when almost beyond hope, from the yellow 
fever on the coast of Africa. In 1839 he submitted to 
a large sacrifice in consenting to cut off the entail of 
the Woodton property. He went to Caius College, 
Cambridge, and was ordained on a title to Kemerton, 
under the vicar, Archdeacon Thorp, a model high 
churchman and parish priest, through whose work with 



OXFORD MOVEMENT, 209 

his curates, many of the best men in the Church were 
sent forth. Of this vicar Mr. Suckling records the 
kindness and generosity; he gave him a very liberal 
stipend, and begged him to spend the income of the 
living as if he were rector so frequently that he had 
no hesitation in laying out money in his name five, 
ten, and even twenty pounds at a time. Of his curate, 
Archdeacon Thorp tells how great was his influence 
in infusing life and power into the outward forms of 
godliness, then assuming their place in the Movement. 

Mr. Suckling set to work to know every one in the 
parish, opened and closed the schools daily with prayers. 
He made acquaintance with many who had leisure 
while walking, both at Kemerton and at Bussage ; 
his was a close individual concern and sympathy 
for others ; he did not consider it enough to take a 
family collectively, but every member of that family was 
the object of his concern and care. A neighbour noticed 
that it was remarkable how he would watch and wait 
whole days and nights on one of his flock, waiting for an 
opportunity, if haply he might find it, to gain that 
one. 

In 1846 he was absent from ill-health, but even in 
illness and absence that watchful care and tender- 
ness for the objects of his charge characterised all his 
letters, of which a great many are printed in Mr. Isaac 
Williams' memoir. 

In 1846 he was able to accept the charge of the new 



210 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

church at Bussage, near Bisley. A family at that 
time resident in the parish of Bisley had united to 
build a church there, and this became known to a party 
of young men at Oxford, who had among themselves 
raised .2000 to build a church in some place where an 
endowment could be procured, and the Church system 
carried out. The church was worthy of the lovely spot 
and of the good purpose of the unknown founders. 
There Mr. Suckling set to work; it was peculiar to 
him to dare and venture, and to succeed : in the parish, 
the church and services, the choir, the dispensary, the 
workhouse, and afterwards the penitentiary, all went 
together with real work ; the quality by which his 
friends described him was " reality " his singular 
reality. 

It was said that he realised in life the unseen to a 
remarkable degree. His influence was wonderful, and 
he felt deeply how responsible he was in that way. A 
friend once observed that " it was more easy to be re- 
ligious in conversation and action in his house than in 
any other. On my first visit it was just upon twelve 
o'clock he gently asked me if I would join with him 
in his usual prayer for that hour from Bishop Cosin's 
Devotions." It was the custom of John Keble and 
his curates to be in church some time before service ; 
and this was Mr. Suckling's plan too, interceding for 
those of his flock who did come to church, and for those 
who were hindered. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 211 

His letters show his great power of sympathy, com- 
passion, and gentleness for every kind of difficulty, 
pain, distress, and suffering. He would visit the dis- 
pensary at Stroud, and the workhouse, and would re- 
mark to his curate that he never left the sick ward 
without feeling strengthened. Many of those who had 
letters from him would say, " I have known no greater 
earthly consolation in trouble than his gentle words and 
affectionate sympathy ". 

Mr. Suckling was liberal to the utmost extent of his 
power: he subscribed to the fund for building Perth 
Cathedral, and among the offerings were several articles 
of plate, with two crests upon them ; and a friend hinted 
that they probably constituted the last articles of that 
kind, or value, that he possessed. Time and space 
would fail to tell of his care for the young, the sick, and 
the poor, and the way in which he helped them by 
word and by his letters. I make room for one instance : 
A woman had a little boy killed at a mill : she was 
asked if she had seen Mr. Suckling. " yes," she 
replied, " I sent for him at once ; I felt as if I knew 
not how to bear it till he cauie." In 1851, a house of 
mercy a refuge was established in that part, with 
sisters of mercy, and he threw himself heartily into the 
work as chaplain. 

He died on All Saints' Day, 1851, having celebrated 
the Holy Communion in the morning. The last few 
weeks of his life he seemed to be preparing for the end, 



212 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

as if he knew it was coming; he spent, we are told, 
hours daily in intercession for his little flock, whose 
every trial was his care. His heart was set upon them. 
And he was laid amidst that flock in the churchyard on 
the lovely slope of the Gloucestershire hills. A vignette 
of the church engraved by Willmore is on the title-page 
of Mr. Williams' memoir. 

One more short memory is that of the Eev. Thomas 
H. B. Bund, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge, eldest 
son of Colonel Bund, of Upper Wick, Worcester. After 
his degree he was a student of the Inner Temple, and 
was called to the Bar, and for two years went the Oxford 
Circuit. He was some short time after a candidate for 
ordination, and was ordained deacon and priest by the 
Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. He, too, was a 
curate in Gloucestershire, at Stroud, then under the 
charge of the Kev. Matthew Blagden Hale, afterwards 
Archdeacon of Adelaide, South Australia, and had a 
district church at Whiteshill assigned to him. Here he 
laboured, and devoted himself to the people with all his 
power, and they came to love and value him. Failing 
health came on, and he tried the air of South Devon, 
and then went to Malta and Egypt. After a stay at 
Malvern, he felt unfit to go back to the work of his 
parish ; yet, anxious to do his Master's work among the 
poor, he took lodgings at Kidderminster for that purpose. 
He spent some weeks at Chelsea (the air of which had 
still some reputation for salubrity in consumption cases), 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 213 

and a few weeks at Ventnor, where he died on the 6th 
June, 1846, and was buried at St. John's, Worcester. 
His relations all bore witness that he never thought of 
himself, but did all he could to assist his fellow-creatures. 
Just before he died he received the first copy of his little 
book called Aids to a Holy Life, in form of self-ex- 
amination on the following subjects : The Eight Employ- 
ment of Time Humility Brotherly Love Government 
of the Tongue Modest and becoming Behaviour The 
Love of Money Chastity Mortification Patience 
Doing all Things for the Sake of God In Time of 
Sickness, on Conformity to the Will of God. This little 
work of seventy pages was his only contribution to the 
literature of the Church Movement, but it was practical 
and useful, and helped others in the good way which 
during his short life on earth he had so carefully trod. 



CHAPTER IX. 

IN recording some smaller villages where Church work 
was done, it is feared that there may be a great deal of 
sameness in the narrative ; and yet, if we are to give 
some idea of how the Movement made its way in towns 
and villages, it will not do to leave them out. 

Of course, there is no pretence at a .complete list; 
indeed, to attempt that would require a small library. 
The power and strength of the Movement are fairly 
shown by the large number of towns and villages of 
which mention can be made. Brighton has certainly 
been for many years a very important centre, and the 
seekers after health and enjoyment there have found 
Church privileges that scarcely belong to any other 
town of its size and population. We will take first a 
few places near. At Ditchling, on the South Downs, 
Mr. Hutchinson did good work for many years ; and the 
simple, solid restoration of that church was quite an 
example for those who are given to the idea that a spick- 
and-span newness is the true principle of restoration. 
Mr. Campion, of Westmeston, close by, was ever the 
kind, genial country parson and gentleman, while the 
head of his family, Mr. Campion, of Danny Park, was a 



RECOLLECTIONS OF OXFORD MOVEMENT. 215 

true model of an English squire and churchman, and 
Mrs. Campion was his helpmeet in all good plans 
and works of kindness. At St. Michael and St. Anne's, 
Lewes, increase of services and reverence were con- 
spicuous ; and, as we go towards Newhaven, we pass 
the scene of the Eev. H. M. Buck's thirty years' labours 
at Seaford, a bright and pleasant seaside resort, but 
not by any means an easy kind of material on which to 
work in Church matters ; but Mr. Buck has never been 
daunted, and soon after he became vicar the ancient 
parish church was restored and a spacious chancel 
added. Then the fine old tower was restored, with a 
new clock and bell and a new roof to the nave, and new 
framework for the eight bells. Daily service, weekly 
Communion, Saints' Day Communion, have been kept 
up for years : very few small seaside towns are blessed 
with all the privileges that Mr. Buck has given to 
Seaford. Pevensey, too, has for years had a vicar of the 
good old Church school, Archdeacon Sutton; and a 
little way inland is Hurstmonceaux, so long the resi- 
dence of the Hares, that brilliant and talented family, 
the friends of F. D. Maurice, and his sister, the authoress 
of Sickness, its Trials and Blessings, etc. The rector of 
later years, Mr. Wilde, is one of a more orthodox 
school. Bexhill was in very early days under a vicar, 
Mr. Simpson, one of the genuine Oxford school 
of divines. Within a walk of Bexhill comes St. 
Leonard's-on-Sea, where the pioneer of the Church 



216 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Movement in that part of the county, the Eev. C. L. 
Vaughan, of Christ Church, has been labouring for 
thirty years, and claims the gratitude of very many 
churchmen and churchwomen who have had the 
privileges in Church matters that have been provided 
for them, both as residents and as visitors in search of 
health and strength. The fine and costly church which 
he has built, the beautiful and constant services, with all 
the adjuncts of ceremonial and orthodox teaching; the 
influence and example afforded by him and his clergy in 
that now populous suburb of Hastings, call indeed for 
the heartfelt thanks of all true churchmen. St. John 
the Divine is a church close to this district, where ex- 
cellent work is done. In Hastings itself, though some 
of the churches were in early days of an old-fashioned 
type, the work has more recently developed in the best 
direction, especially in the church of Holy Trinity, 
where the genial and hard-working Dr. Sanderson, 
formerly Headmaster of Lancing, is doing a great work 
as vicar of that parish ; the Canonry, which is sup- 
posed to give time for rest and study, being used to 
enable him to be the hard-working parish priest, with 
a daily celebration and most constant and carefully 
arranged services, and preaching of a very high order. 
His Parish Magazine is a model for such a town, parish, 
and work. 

Some way inland, again, is Little Horsted, the seat 
of Mr. Francis Barchard, one of those laymen whose 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 217 

quiet, constant life has been a considerable power, 
and his years of work for the community of East 
Grinstead alone deserve deep admiration and ac- 
knowledgment. 

The work at Brighton began in the early days of the 
fifties, with the building of St. Paul's Church in West 
Street, the incumbent of which was the Eev. Arthur 
Douglas Wagner, son of the Kev. Henry Michell 
Wagner, the then Vicar of Brighton ; and, no doubt, 
very much of the work done in Brighton afterwards 
was due to the fact that this clever, business-like, and 
earnest vicar, of the old-fashioned orthodox type, 
of the Joshua Watson, Churton, and Sikes school, was 
at the head of matters. Tall, thin, and active, Mr. 
Wagner about the town, in his small narrow brougham, 
was a familiar figure for years. A few years before the 
time of which we speak, it seemed quite a wonder that 
a. little old church at the top of a steep hill restored in 
1853 as a memorial to the Duke of Wellington was 
the parish church of that rapidly growing town ; 
there assembled all the parochial officials of the town, 
and the church was almost inconveniently crowded at 
every service. In those days, too, the Evangelical party 
was in possession of most of the popular churches and 
chapels in the town Mr. Clay at St. Margaret's, Mr. 
Vaughan at Christ Church, Mr. E. V. Elliott at St. 
Mary's, Mr. Maitland at St. James's Chapel. At the 
Chapel Eoyal, Mr. Trocke was of the old-fashioned, 



218 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

orthodox school, as were also the Eev. Eobert Anderson 
and the Eev. C. E. Kennaway. Mr. Eobertson at 
Trinity Chapel, Ship Street, was of no school but his 
own. Many of these chapels were wonderfully trans- 
formed in after days, and all of them more or less 
improved in outward matters as time went on. Mr. 
Henry Venn Elliott's large Grecian style of chapel was 
to develop into a very fine Gothic church, very much 
after the style of one of Mr. Pearson's best buildings ; 
St. James's was to go through a great transformation, 
and then to settle down into its present neat and simple 
church ; St. Margaret's and the Chapel Eoyal (once a 
perfect wilderness of pews, with the Eoyal Arms as the 
great piece of symbolism) were hardly to be recognised ; 
and Trinity Chapel, Ship Street, was to be much adorned 
and beautified. But in 1850 these buildings still had 
their set form of worship : high pews, the altar behind 
the three-decker, curtains, cushions, amen-clerk, choir 
in gallery, etc., etc. The Eev. Henry Venn Elliott, of 
St. Mary's, was looked upon as the successor of Cecil, 
Venn, Simeon, and the best of the Puritan school. 
In many ways there seemed a less rigid line drawn 
between these and the early High Churchmen. Dr. 
Pusey's son was at school in Sussex Square ; the 
school attended St. Mary's Chapel, and he was pre- 
pared for Confirmation by Mr. Henry Venn Elliott, the 
incumbent : Mrs. Bartlett's was a well-known and suc- 
cessful school, and afterwards, under her son-in-law, the 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 219 

Rev. Charles Young, who was a High Churchman, well 
maintained its character and success. Some of those 
early Evangelicals, too, improved their services in many 
matters, especially the Eev. James Vaughan, one of the 
best and most deeply respected : it was said that he was 
most anxious for the better observance of Ascension Day, 
and had a celebration of Holy Communion for his people ; 
but even with his great influence and power it was not 
easy to bring many of his congregation up to that level. 
On the vexed subject of Evening Communion it was said 
that Mr. Vaughan told his people from the pulpit that 
if any one came to the evening celebration who could 
by any possibility come at any other time he would 
discontinue it. Mr. Vaughan was large-hearted, and 
always spoke of Dr. Neale with affection and regard 
as an early member of his congregation, and appreciated 
the gift of some of his books from a friend. 

Mr. H. M. Wagner's curates at the parish church 
were of the same school as himself, such as Mr. Mitchell 
and C. E. Douglass : the latter published two small 
books, the Doctrine of Holy Baptism, and The One Fold 
of Christ. Later on Mr. Wagner had for one of 
his curates Mr. Purchas, and it was from that 
curacy that he took the incumbency of St. James's 
Chapel, in St. James's Street. The building of St. 
Paul's in West Street was certainly the first important 
step of the Movement in Brighton, and the vicar was 
known to take the greatest interest in his son's church 



220 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

and work, and for some years was a frequent preacher 
in it. Brighton Vicarage was a large Gothic mansion 
in its own grounds, at the top of Montpelier Road, and 
there for years lived the vicar, his sister, Miss Wagner 
(of whom very many still have a loving remembrance, 
and who, up to the last days of her active life, was 
ever engaged in helping forward all that was good and 
true), the Eev. A. D. Wagner, and frequently Mr. 
Henry Wagner, a barrister and younger brother. St. 
Paul's has been for more than forty years too well 
known and valued by thousands to need much de- 
scription its grand chancel, altar, altar triptych by 
Eossetti, standard lights, with everything of the very 
best and most costly, lovingly added to year after year 
with enrichments in metal-work, paintings, decorations, 
stained-glass windows, etc., throughout. Such an im- 
mense advance on anything Brighton had known before 
1850 was much talked about, and hundreds came from 
far and wide to see this beautiful church and to join in 
such a service of worship, praise and thanksgiving as 
few then had dreamed of. No wonder it was thronged 
with devout worshippers ; and the work of the church- 
wardens and vergers was no sinecure ; at the time of the 
late celebration the one narrow chancel-screen door, as 
the only ingress to and egress from the altar, required 
careful and firm attention, and on Sunday evenings the 
churchwardens and four vergers failed often to find seats 
for all the people who came. Perhaps the best time to 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 221 

really impress one with the great beauty of this church 
was at the early communion on fine Sunday mornings. 
In early days, Mr. White, the organist, who has left a 
memory of much that was excellent both as a church- 
man and a musician, was present, and often collected 
the offertory ; and at Evensong, who can forget the 
thrill and outburst of song in those grand Parisian 
tones for the Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis, kept up for 
years without change or intermission, almost a type of 
the simple unchanging firmness and determination of 
the first and present incumbent, who was never one 
given to much change in the ritual and service of his 
church ? As years went on all that could enhance and 
improve would be added, till a clear, definite ceremonial 
was arrived at, in thorough accordance with the rubrics 
and the catholic and historical character of the Church 
of England ; and that ritual, come what might, through 
storm and sunshine, was and has been well and truly 
maintained. Of course, there were storms, and they 
were bravely borne, and a brilliant record might be 
made of the early years of St. Paul's ; excellent hard- 
working clergy and a congregation thoroughly appreci- 
ating all their work and teaching. Besides the Vicar of 
Brighton, Mr. Arthur Wagner had the help of the Rev. 
W. Gresley, Prebendary of Lichfield, for nearly seven 
years, till the Church of All Saints, Boyne Hill, was 
built in 1857. Mr. Gresley's share in spreading the 
truest principles of the Church Movement by his works, 



222 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

sermons, tales, historical and theological, is well known, 
bringing the various details of improved doctrine and 
ritual into every-day practice in such stories as 
Bernard Leslie, the modern curate facing the dust 
and neglect and abuses of ages, and doing battle with 
the opposing churchwardens and those who liked to 
" let all such things alone " ; and in his Portrait of an 
English Churchman, showing us the thorough gentle- 
man and churchman in heart and action ; and in his 
stories for children, so fresh and wholesome. All 
recognised the effect of Mr. Gresley's Sunday 
evening sermons on the young people of that 
large congregation : this work has been well carried on 
by others since, especially by the Eev. J. H. Ashley 
Gibson, once a curate at St. Barnabas, Pimlico. All 
honour to such men of one curacy in our Church ! As 
in other matters, so in the case of his curates, Mr. 
Wagner seldom changed ; and a record of good names 
could indeed be made, though it would not be easy 
to make it chronologically. About 1855, Charles 
Beanlands was curate, afterwards well known and 
respected as the Vicar of St. Michael's, Brighton. A 
sermon of his at St. Paul's on St. Michael's Day in that 
year, seemed almost to give, as it were, the key-note to 
his future church and parish ; it was an extempore 
sermon of about half-an-hour, and in it the preacher 
went through every mention of Angels and their office 
in the Bible ; it was so well done, with no hesitation 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 223 

or apparent stop for a word, that in coming out, a friend 
asked how it was done ; I think some one who knew 
replied that there was no doubt it was learnt off by 
heart. To those who remember that sermon, it was 
almost a coincidence to hear that the preacher was 
chosen as the first incumbent of the Church of St. 
Michael and All Angels, built by the munificence of the 
Misses Windle, who afterwards resided at Oxford. St. 
Michael's has a little history of its own, and curates and 
friends of its own ; so we will go back for a while to St. 
Paul's and its special curates. One name, I am sure, 
still stands out pre-eminently in the hearts and minds 
of those who were privileged to know him : it is that of 
the Eev. Eandolph Payne, one of a family ever devoted to 
St. Paul's and its work. The father (also Mr. Eandolph 
Payne, who lived at one time in Sloane Street, and went 
daily to St. Paul's, Knightsbridge) was one of its earliest 
churchwardens; and his widow and children, ever one in 
their constant attendance and work, have devoted a 
life's service. A younger son, the Eev. Alfred Payne, 
worked for some time in the north part of the town, at 
the Church of St. Bartholomew, where he was much 
valued and esteemed, till on his marriage he settled 
in a Yorkshire vicarage. But we are chiefly speaking 
of the elder brother, for nearly forty years curate of St. 
Paul's. There is not much to tell in the story of such 
a life, living at home with his family, taking a full share 
in the services of St. Paul's, seldom preaching (though 



224 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

when he did he reminded one of Keble and Isaac 
Williams, and of the Plain Sermons ~by the Contributors 
to the Tracts for the Times] , little known to the outside 
world, but very much known to those who needed 
him as the true friend, adviser, and guide; such a 
gentle influence and saintly life most surely made a 
lasting mark on those who knew and on some who only 
heard of him ; a lady who knew him used to say that 
she could not help thinking of him when she heard the 
words, " ye holy and humble men of heart ". The 
Eev. Eandolph Payne died in March, 1889, and will be 
best known as friend and curate to Mr. Arthur Wagner; 
he had first the curacy of Chilton Folliott, Wilts, under 
Mr. Popham, one of the chaplains to Bishop Hamilton, 
of Salisbury, and then, for a short time, that of Wiston, 
under Mr. Napier, the parish in which stands Chancton- 
bury Ring, that famous hill with its splendid views (the 
Rev. Charles Goring was and is the squire): years after, 
it was pleasing to hear Mr. Napier often speak of Mr. 
Payne, remembering him with much regard. The Rev. 
R. Hammond, once at Bradfield and chaplain to one of 
Mr. Woodard's colleges, was also curate of St. Paul's 
for some years. The Rev. John Purchas, who had 
written and compiled the Directorium Anglicanum, 
when a curate at Orwell, near Cambridge, settled 
down in Brighton and was curate for some time 
at St. Paul's, where his slight and youthful appearance 
and quaint sermons (somewhat after the model of 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 225 

Dr. A. B. Evans) interested many people. Some 
years after, Mr. Purchas became curate to Mr. 
Wagner, sen., at the parish church, and by him 
was presented to the incumbency of St. James's Chapel 
on the death of Mr. Maitland, but the story of that 
chapel will come later on in our sketch. When the 
Directorium came out with its details of ceremonial and 
ritual, which were at first somewhat more historical and 
archaeological than practical, it was said that visitors to 
Cambridge went over to Orwell expecting to see the 
Directorium in full force and practice, and were really 
much surprised and a little disappointed to find only a 
curate, with no power to change most of the old-fashioned 
ritual, driving to church in a by no means severe clerical 
costume. 

But though it is not easy or to be expected that 
sketches such as this will follow in their due course as 
to time and date, we may now go on to tell that a 
beautiful church and constant services, a large con- 
gregation and much appreciation, were a very small part 
of Mr. Arthur Wagner's plans for the spiritual and 
temporal good of his native town. Very soon St. Mary's 
Home, carried on in several houses in Queen Square, at 
the top of North Street, and up the side of the steep hill 
(Wykeham Terrace) leading to the old church, was in 
full work ; here soon came a goodly number of sisters. 
The first superior of the home, Miss Gream, was sister 
to Dr. Gream, the physician (and also sister to the 

15 



226 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

"Mother Ann" of East Grinstead). Sister Harriet, 
Miss Hutton, Miss Milner, and others are still remem- 
bered with affection. The works of St. Mary's Home 
were many and important. In it was a home and 
refuge for penitents ; a home and school for children 
whose own homes were too sad to be worthy of such a 
sacred name; a hospital and dispensary; a middle-class 
school, giving a good education to the daughters of 
poorer clergy and others who had small incomes ; and 
other works, in some of which Mr. Wagner was 
assisted by several of the ladies of St. Paul's con- 
gregation, some of whom lived near at hand and devoted 
themselves in many ways. One such name I will record, 
though very many others will come to mind ; it is that 
of Miss Phillips, daughter of the well-known portrait 
painter and Koyal Academician of that name. 

One of the earliest district churches built by Mr. 
Wagner was that of St. Mary Magdalene's, Bread Street, 
a small street running between Church Street and North 
Koad, right in the midst of a poor fisher and working 
population. This was opened with a bright and cheerful 
service, the Bishop of Brechin preaching. This church 
was served for a time chiefly by the St. Paul's clergy ; but 
one of the earliest of the curates to have special charge 
of it was the Kev. James H. Cooper, who worked here 
among the poor people for some years, and had the 
happy knack of being as genial and as much at home 
with them all as he was with the richer members of St. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 227 

Paul's congregation. Mr. Cooper preached well and 
plainly, and had many friends, among them such men 
as the author of Tom Brown's School Days; and one 
evening I remember the visit of Mr. Baring Gould to 
say "good-bye," on his leaving St. John's College, Hurst- 
pierpoint, where he had been for a short time a master. 
Who would have thought that the tall, fair, bright, 
youthful-looking man would develop into the volumi- 
nous author, the biographer, historian, antiquary, sermon 
writer, and novelist, whom we seem to know so well ? 
The choir was hearty but rough ; indeed, the material 
was poor, and, as Mr. Cooper used to say, what voice 
could you expect from boys who probably had but a few 
herrings a week for food ? Their exceeding drowsiness 
was a trial in some ways ; one has heard of the school- 
master who left his class standing, telling his wife to 
wake him in three minutes, and then went back to his 
class refreshed : one of the boys in Bread Street choir 
certainly excelled this in rapid somnolence ; he would 
go fast asleep during the alternate verses of the Magni- 
ficat, waking up each time as his own verse came round. 
Mr. Cooper was for some years curate to Mr. Maberly 
at Cuckfield, arid left to take the Vicarage of Tarporley, 
in Cheshire, where he had a far more beautiful and 
reverent service than most country towns around that 
part were at all accustomed to. In later years, much to 
his own content and happiness, no doubt, Mr. Cooper 
has returned to the place of his early curacy as Vicar of 



228 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Cuckfield, succeeding Archdeacon Mount, himself a 
worthy successor to Mr. Maberly. For some years 
after this, St. Mary Magdalene's, Bread Street, was 
worked by the Eev. J. P. Kane, a well-known worker 
in the Movement, first at Cowley, then at St. George's- 
in-the-East, a most hardworking and indefatigable man: 
we used to say he was made of cast-iron, nothing 
fatigued him; one of the churchwardens of St. Paul's 
helped in the choir with him and read the lessons. Dr. 
Littledale, when in Brighton, which he often was, would 
frequently help and preach here : on one occasion I re- 
marked to him that it was rather hard on us that we 
could not very decently laugh outright at some of the 
anecdotes in his sermon. " Now, that's just what I 
would like you to have done," he replied. 

Those who know the various steep hills that run up 
eastward from the Old Steyne and Lewes Eoad will 
understand that the dwellers on those heights had great 
distances to go to any church in those early days. St. 
John's, Carlton Hill, the only church near, was not at 
all an easy place to find, though the incumbent, the 
Eev. Aaron Augustus Morgan, was a genial and well- 
known figure in Brighton : somewhat of a poet and 
Shakespearian scholar, he was known more in those 
ways than in that of the parish priest. Up one of these 
steep ascents, at the top of Southover Street, Mr. Wagner 
built another district church, to be known as the Church 
of the Annunciation; then at first worked by the Eev. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 229 

Charles Anderson, now Vicar of St. John's, Limehouse, 
and afterwards for some years by the Rev. Christopher 
Thompson, an excellent churchman and good musician, 
once at St. Bartholomew's, Moor Lane, and afterwards 
Vicar of Pensax, Worcestershire. The work here went 
forward, and the late Rev. George Chapman was ap- 
pointed first vicar of this church. The story of his 
wonderfully holy life, and death in the midst of his 
work, is still fresh in the memory of all who knew him. 
It is now many years since I first saw him, a young 
man who had just taken his degree at Cambridge ; it 
was at Liverpool, on the occasion of his brother's 
marriage, in the days of Mr. Bramah and Mr. Parnell 
at St. James-the-Less there. He was then the quiet, 
retiring scholar, and became one of the most saintly of 
the Church's priests, living a life that seemed to com- 
mand the love and regard not only of his own people 
and flock, but of the very town itself, as was witnessed 
at his funeral. A small volume, with a few sketches 
and recollections, was put together and published by 
the Rev. J. B. De la Bere, Vicar of the district church 
of Buxted, and a still more complete life is now edited 
by the Rev. Alfred Gurney. 

The next advance in Mr. Wagner's work was the 
building of the great Church of St. Bartholomew, in the 
northern part of the town, where for some time, in a 
temporary church, Mr. Alfred Payne and others had 
been working. This building is not easy to describe : 



2 3 o RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

very simple, of solid brickwork, with variations of 
colour, and of the grandest proportions ; in height it 
rivals Westminster Abbey, and alarmed some people, 
among others the Town Council, lest the light 
should be obstructed ; but Mr. Wagner, when he built, 
counted the cost in more ways than one, and throughout 
all obstruction and opposition went on his way. Like 
all that he did, everything was substantial and hand- 
some ; and this church, as most of the others, has now 
been for some years a separate vicarage, endowed, and 
worked by a staff of four or five clergy, with a most 
correct and beautiful service and ritual, and full paro- 
chial works and scheme, bringing the Church and her 
system into people's hearts and lives. Mr. Collis, the 
late vicar, was known for years at St. Paul's, Knights- 
bridge. Mr. Parnell, of St. Margaret's, Liverpool, is one 
of the clergy. 

The next church was built by Mr. Wagner and his 
brothers; and the story of that magnificent Church of St. 
Martin, Lewes Eoad, further north beyond St. Bartholo- 
mew's, is full of interest. As I have said, the old vicar 
of Brighton was an earnest worker and full of active 
energy in the care of his parish, soon to surpass in size 
and importance any town of the kind in England. On 
the way to the northern part of the town, between the 
Downs, on the Lewes Eoad, was a part where was little 
spiritual provision of Church or parish work. On the 
way to the Lewes Eoad is the large church of St. Peter's, 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 231 

with its imposing Gothic ornaments and tower, standing 
in its own grounds ; but beyond that and on past the 
Level there was no church. In those early days, St. 
Peter's was held by Mr. Cooke, an old friend of the 
Vicar of Brighton, and of the same orthodox school ; Mr. 
Cooke at least was not afraid to invite Dr. Pusey to 
preach two sermons at St. Peter's during the time of his 
suspension from preaching at the University. (Dr. 
Pusey also preached for Mr. Chanter, at Ilfracombe, 
during that period.) In 1842, J. Mason Neale won- 
dered how his friend Berkeley Addison, then curate to 
the vicar, and helping sometimes at St. Peter's, had no 
definite idea or feeling of the necessity and design of a 
chancel, and spoke of the symbolism of what once was, 
and will again, he trusted, be a principal part of a 
church. This hope as to St. Peter's was a long time 
coming ; but under Dr. Hannah, St. Peter's became the 
parish church, and both he and his son and successor 
planned the addition of chancel, etc., making St. Peter's 
more worthy of its position as the parish church of 
Brighton. About the Lewes and Ditchling Eoad part, 
a district of some six or seven thousand was growing 
up ; and Mr. Arthur Wagner had placed a temporary 
church, in which worked the Rev. J. M. Fincher, now 
Rector of Pett, in Sussex, and others; but the old vicar 
had resolved to build a church in that part, choosing 
his friends Mr. Vaughan and Mr. Cooke as a sort of 
Building Committee to select site and superintend the 



232 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

building ; but before this was accomplished, or the 
5000 set apart, the vicar was called to his rest, and 
the scheme was at an end. Then the Eev. A. D. 
Wagner and his brothers offered to carry out the in- 
tention which their father had, and would have com- 
pleted. They offered to give the 5000 for it, or to 
build a church in the Lewes Eoad; Mr. Vaughan 
decided to accept the latter offer, and hence the build- 
ing of the superb church of St. Martin at the cost of 
many times that amount. It was the more complete and 
graceful a gift, because the brothers placed the presenta- 
tion unreservedly in the hands of the Vicar of Brighton. 
In the reredos were figures of saints and doctors carved 
at Oberammergau ; the east window was specially given 
by Mr. Henry Wagner in memory of his mother and 
aunt, and filled with subjects from the Annunciation to 
the Day of Pentecost ; the panels of the reredos were 
all painted with figures from the Old arid New Testa- 
ment: Abraham, Moses, Elijah, Ezekiel, Joshua, Gideon, 
etc., down to early Christian saints and martyrs. The 
one unusual feature was the introduction in the fifth 
panel of recent colonial and English Church worthies : 
Bishops Seabury of America, Inglis of Canada, Middleton 
of India, Gray of Africa, Patteson of Australia, Bishop 
Wilberforce, Mr. Keble, W. Gibbs, Joshua Watson, H. 
Michell, and the late vicar. Tablets recording the gift 
of the church out of filial love and respect, and to Mary 
Sikes Wagner, mother of the founders, who died in 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 233 

1840, and to Mary Ann Wagner, their aunt, who died 
in 1868, were placed in the chancel. 

There is one more record of another handsome church 
built by Mr. Arthur Wagner in Russell Street, at the 
back of St. Paul's, not only relieving that overcrowded 
church, but giving room for sisters and schools to attend 
with more comfort. There is to be told in connection 
with the building of this, the Church of the Resurrection, a 
singular proof of the determined perseverance of the Vicar 
of St. Paul's. As the church reached the level of the roof 
of the large brewery next to it, notice to stop the build- 
ing from being carried higher up was given. Mr. Wagner 
was equal to the occasion ; if he could not go up, he 
could at least go down lower, and he did so, making the 
church of the proportions originally intended. Among 
the early curates we must not omit the Rev. R. W. 
Enraght, who afterwards took the district church of St. 
Andrew's, Portslade, and from there went to Holy 
Trinity, Bordesley, succeeding Dr. Oldknow. Those 
who knew him at Brighton and Birmingham can bear 
witness to his kind and helpful life as priest and friend 
to all his people, and those who were witnesses of his 
arrest and imprisonment will never forget the solemnity 
and pathos of that event. All honour, we repeat, to the 
curates of many years' standing, and among them to the 
Rev. J. E. Halliwell, of St. Paul's, son of the Rev. Thos. 
Halliwell, curate of St. Andrew's, Hove (to the Rev. 
Daniel Winham), and nephew of the renowned Shake- 



234 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

spearian and bibliographical scholar, J. 0. Halliwell- 
Phillips. The Eev. C. H. Mauosell was for many years 
working both at St. Paul's and at St. Bartholomew's 
Churches ; he is now Vicar of Thorpe Malsor, North- 
amptonshire ; among others who worked with Mr. 
Wagner, the name of Alfred Gurney, now Vicar of St. 
Barnabas, Pimlico, must by no means be omitted. It 
was not at all likely that among all the misapprehen- 
sions and misconceptions by the public of the Tractarian 
clergy, so powerful and munificent a member as Mr. 
Wagner would escape. The usual exciting arguments 
about confession and absolution were talked over and 
over again, and so one Sunday three poor working-men 
felt themselves aggrieved, and as Mr. Wagner was going 
up North Street in the afternoon, after calling on his 
churchwarden, they assaulted him, and were taken 
into custody, though they were rather punished at the 
time by Sir Thomas Barrett Lennard, who was passing. 
The men had, I think, some months in prison, and Mr. 
Wagner kept their wives and children all the time, and 
doubtless helped them when they came out. Mr. Wagner 
of his own accord very seldom came before the public in 
any way. Irreverence and Erastianism would certainly 
arouse his indignation, and so he was present at the 
great meeting in the Birmingham Town Hall, while Mr. 
Enraght was in Warwick Gaol, no doubt feeling most 
the dishonour done to our Blessed Lord in the sac- 
rilegious act of Mr. Enraght's prosecutors. His two 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 235 

pamphlets, Christ or Ccesar, were very earnest protests 
against dishonour to our Lord as the Divine Head of 
His Church. Then for many a long year Mr. Wagner 
had to endure the cry of " Romanist," "Jesuit in 
disguise," etc., at which latter designation a correspon- 
dent of that day, who knew what he was saying, fairly 
laughed outright: "A Jesuit by all means if they will 
have it so, but in disguise certainly not ! Mr. Wagner 
is nothing in disguise, all is open and above-board ; 
who ever heard of his making any secret of his views 
or practices ? No one is more outspoken and straight- 
forward in his sermons and teaching ; he tells every one 
most clearly and plainly what he means, printing and 
publishing this too in a letter to the chief pastor of his 
Church." 

How absurdly inappropriate was the cry of " eating 
the bread of the Church of England while undermining 
her in reality," when applied to a man who was spend- 
ing several large fortunes in founding and endowing 
churches, schools, etc., that would perpetually belong to 
that Church ; to a man who had never in his life taken 
one sixpence of endowment, fee, or income from the 
Church in any way whatever! At that time, the 
Roman papers, after circulating a report that Mr. 
Wagner had seceded, kindly allowed that he might be 
sincere, at least if princely munificence be a sign of 
sincerity, and then went on to hint that his generous 
disposition and kindliness of heart had more to do with 



236 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

his position than any talents or learning. This was 
amusing, as Mr. Wagner was a good scholar, a great 
reader and student, and knew more about the working 
of the Church of Rome, both ancient and modern, than 
half the recent converts put together ; and another thing 
is certain, that he was not at all given to be much in- 
fluenced by others in that way. But this is all past and 
over ; and though much of the seceding was done in a 
not very genuine or straightforward way, we would 
gladly forget it. And now years and years have passed, 
and the event only proves that faithful service and a 
definite position have been the mainstay of the English 
priest of whom we are telling. We have spoken chiefly 
of the well-known and greater works accomplished by 
Mr. Arthur Wagner. It is needless to add that these 
were but a part of his work : the private and unknown 
acts of charity can of course never be recorded. His 
care for the poor and needy, sick and afflicted, for 
children and helpless, might be seen ; but there are 
other ways in which a rich man with houses and land 
can help folks once better off, the struggling tradesman, 
those whose income had been sadly reduced, and even 
the higher classes, the professional man with an uphill 
path these were never known, of course. When St. 
Paul's was built, one of the first needs to be provided 
was a supply of the Church literature then being pub- 
lished by four or five firms in the form of tracts, com- 
mentaries, devotional works, sermons, allegories, tales, 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 237 

manuals, etc. Mr. Wagner was a good friend to the 
wife, afterwards the widow, of an invalid verger of St. 
Paul's in a small shop close to the church, helping with 
stock and capital for years, and it developed into a very 
fair business in a large house and shop of her own 
opposite the church ; many will recall with pleasure 
Mrs. White and her book and stationery shop. 

The way in which the work and services at St. Paul's 
went on and on, always to be relied on, made it a very 
restful place, and indeed to many it was as a refuge in 
trial and trouble. It was a refreshment to many clergy 
who could get a rest at Brighton from their own town 
or country work, and some who came to rest would 
often help in many ways. The Rev. E. A. Illingworth 
will be remembered with much regard in this way. 
The Eev. E. Field, the staunch Chaplain of Lancing 
College, often preached. The Rev. T. Simpson Evans, 
Evan Rowsell, Mr. Causton, were often there, and 
Edward Monro in the last years of his life, when health 
and strength were failing. To the aged and the ailing 
St. Paul's was indeed a haven of rest and a comfort ; to 
complete invalids the Blessed Sacrament was taken 
with every mark of deep reverence. We can 
recall many of the earlier church folk. Sir William 
and Lady Gomm, the benefactor to Keble College; 
Colonel Moorsom, who spent the few years of health left 
him by the Crimean War in much good work, and was 
churchwarden for a year or two ; the sister of Colonel 



238 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Short and Bishop Short of Adelaide; Mr. and Mrs. 
Simpson and their daughters ; Miss Fielding, the only 
daughter of Copley Fielding, the great painter, who on 
her death was laid beside him in Hove Churchyard ; 
Mr. and Mrs. Synnot ; at his funeral the choir and 
clergy all attended, Mr. Carter, of Clewer, celebrating, 
served by the churchwarden of St. Paul's, who also 
carried the black ebony funeral cross at the church and 
at the grave. Some may remember the tall, thin figure 
of a lady in black, with iron-grey hair, and a calm, 
dignified face : this was Mrs. Jennings, the widow of 
the Eev. H. J. Jennings, chaplain at Delhi, who, with 
his daughter, was cut down by the first band of muti- 
neers, as they were nursing two officers who had just 
been wounded ; happily, they were killed at once, with- 
out torture or outrage ; St. Paul's, no doubt, helped her 
to bear that fearful trial. We have no space to record 
many other names : one occurs to us as the very earliest 
of the St. Paul's attendants. In the western aisle several 
seats were occupied by a ladies' school conducted by 
Miss Parkinson, of the Dyke Koad ; this school was 
like a home of the Church Movement, and could tell of 
a race of Church women and matrons true through life 
to the faith and principles they there learnt. As with 
his curates so it was with Mr. Wagner's churchwardens. 
This sketch would be incomplete without naming the 
years of help and work by the late Mr. Arthur W. 
Woods, of Ship Street. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 



239 



St. Paul's choir was an institution, and like Mr. 
Wagner's curates, the larger number of his choir-men 
served for many years. The choir supper, too, was a 
goodly feast ; and afterwards, it was pleasing to see the 
vicar patiently endure the comic songs, in which " The 
Monks of Old," and "Simon the Cellarer," usually bore 
their part. Lord Elibank was a member of the choir 
during his residence in Brighton. Their toast was 
"Health and long life to Mr. Wagner". Mr. Wagner 
was chancellor of Chichester Cathedral from 1871 to 
1879. 

St. Michael's, under Mr. Beanlands, has ever held a 
foremost place in the practical revival of doctrine and 
ritual : a small, but very well arranged church, solid 
and handsome, the ritual on an elaborate and careful 
plan; the choir and music for many years conducted by 
Dr. King, now organist of the parish church, on the 
very best Gregorian models. Two of Mr. Beanlands' 
curates were well worthy of mention. The Eev. T. W. 
Perry, after being at All Saints', Margaret Street, and at 
Addington, was at St. Michael's for ten years from 1862, 
and was a power for good in every way, an ecclesiastical 
lawyer and solid liturgical scholar, a member of the 
Ritual Commission, 1867, author of Lawful Church 
Ornaments, etc. As a scholar and a preacher, Mr. 
Perry made a distinct mark in Brighton, and was 
valued and consulted by a large circle of friends. The 
Ptev. Charles Walker, though more of a volunteer than 



240 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

an actual curate, took a full share in all the services, 
and was a valuable help in the ritual and worship, the 
owner of valuable vestments and ornaments, and a 
liberal donor in all matters. He will be remembered 
with much regard and affection ; and his great help and 
sympathy with St. Margaret's, East Grinstead, endeared 
him to the sisters and friends of that noble foundation. 
Mr. Beanlaiids had good friends and supporters. Among 
them General Tremenheere, his wife and children, the 
Lindsays, Mr. and Mrs. Barchard, Mrs. Tyrwhitt, Colonel 
Shaw Hellyer, and many others. 

The early death of Mr. Purchas, and the account of 
the lawsuit about his ritual, have been described 
again and again; but the general idea to be gathered 
would be anything but a true representation of the man 
himself. He has been pictured as a sort of apostle of 
ritual, a man to whom ritual was everything, and by 
whom certain ceremonies would be carried out, in 
defiance of all law, order, and peace. Mr. Purchas was 
nothing of the kind ; he was gentle, kindly, and humble- 
minded. When St. James's Chapel was offered to him 
he felt that it was an opportunity to set out in some 
more distinctive way the ritual sanctioned by the 
Ornaments Rubric, and the demolishing of part of 
the old Puritan chapel fixings went on merrily; but 
it was at best, when all was done, an incongruous 
mixture ; and the services, which were very elaborate, 
and carried out by friends and helpers not always of the 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 241 

wisest, seemed in that chapel like new cloth on an old 
garment. Things were too bright and smart for the sur- 
roundings, and it was not a success ; the lawsuit was 
ruinous, and no doubt helped to break down Mr. Purchas's 
health ; and an amiable and lovable man was taken from 
enemies and friends. As an elegant scholar and poet, 
and a kind friend and companion, he will be best 
known and remembered. His evening hymn, "Even- 
song is hushed in silence," with its sweet melody, still 
lingers in the memory. So far were Mr. Purchas's own 
feelings from a wish to press extreme ritual on an un- 
willing people, that I have his own handwriting in 
November, 1860, expressing his grief at the angry 
feelings caused, and his readiness to " seek peace and 
ensue it at any course short of the surrender of truth ". 
His funeral was a very impressive one, and will rank 
with others in our recollection, more especially with 
those of the old vicar, the Eev. H. M. Wagner, and of 
Miss Wagner. 

Some years before, a funeral in Brighton was very 
largely attended, but, of course, without the beautiful 
and hopeful ceremonial. It was that of the Eev. F. W. 
Robertson. One might call it, by way of contrast, an 
exposition of very great pulpit influence. 

We will not leave our mention of Brighton without 
naming another Mr. Wagner, the Rev. George Wagner 
(cousin to the Rev. Arthur Wagner), once curate of 

Dallington, in Sussex, afterwards incumbent of St. 

16 



242 RECOLLECTIONS OF OXFORD MOVEMENT. 

Stephen's, Brighton, who led a life of self-sacrificing 
devotion to the spiritual interests of his flock. His life 
and letters were published, edited by the Eev. J. N. 
Simpkinson, and told of a character most saintly and 
devout. 



CHAPTER X. 

MAKING our way for a while along the coast there was 
not a great deal to tell then of the now working centres 
of Portsea, Southsea, and Landport, which have all de- 
veloped so much during the last twenty years ; but 
between thirty and forty years ago the Rev. T. D. Platt 
at Holy Trinity, Portsea, was standing much alone in 
his work of Church Revival; he was for seven years 
curate to Archdeacon Denison. It was said that Bishop 
Gilbert of Chichester, the bishop who so long inhibited 
Dr. Neale, was much exercised by the very open and 
straightforward way in which Mr. Platt proceeded, 
even to receiving those who wished for ghostly counsel 
and advice in the church itself. It must have been 
curious and even amusing to hear that bishop express 
his surprise, not so much at the thing itself, as at the 
thorough straightforwardness. " Surely, not openly in 
the church itself ? " and the simple reply, " Yes, my 
lord". Mr. Platt was assisted for some time by the 
Rev. W. R. Scott, a very earnest and zealous worker, 
once at Enfield with the Rev. J. Fuller Russell, also 
chaplain to Mr. Hubbard's works in Russia, for some 
years at Honolulu, and perpetual curate of St. Mary 

(243) 



244 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Magdalen's, Harlow. He was the author of some valuable 
pamphlets, one on the apostolical succession, and Canon 
LV. The untiring work of Mr. Scott and his wife, in a 
district of Whitechapel, for the souls and bodies of the 
people during the fearful cholera of 1866, should not 
be forgotten. 

Crossing to the Isle of Wight, we can record Mr. 
Wix's work at St. Michael's, Swanmore, Eyde ; and on 
the other side of the island must visit the toinb of Mr. 
Adams (son of Serjeant Adams), the author of the 
Shadow of the Cross, the Old Man's Home, and other 
allegories and sermons, leaving one of the most beautiful 
memories of the early days of the Movement; his tomb- 
stone in Bonchurch churchyard is surmounted by a cross 
of iron, raised so that the "shadow of the cross" is 
always thrown on to the stone slab, perpetuating the 
name of his chief allegory : Mr. Adams also wrote The 
Fall of Croesus, an attempt to point one of Herodotus's 
most graphic narratives with a moral directly Christian. 
Here also, in Ventnor, we are reminded of Miss Sewell, 
the authoress of many valuable books and religious 
manuals, as well as of the well-known tales, Amy 
Herbert, Ursula, Laneton Parsonage, The Experience of 
Life, and many other thoroughly bright, wholesome tales 
of domestic and social life, inculcating excellent Church 
principles ; they had a very large circulation, forming 
a literature most valuable to the rising generation of 
young girls. Before leaving the island we gladly tell of 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 245 

the Catholic work and services, from a very early period 
of the Movement, of Mr. Oliver of Whitwell. A name 
much connected with the Church Movement was that of 
Richard Waldo Sibthorp, rather a remarkable character, 
who had a church for some years in Ryde. 

A little farther along the coast we come to Bourne- 
mouth, which, like Portsea and Southsea, has grown 
and increased immensely, with its several churches; 
here, in 1857, Mr. Bennett was working up on Church 
lines, with good choral service, weekly celebration, 
etc. 

The Movement influenced Jersey and Guernsey early 
in the forties, and Dr. Godfray of Jersey was a thorough 
worker in the cause, not only as a parish priest and 
preacher in a most difficult charge, but as a writer in 
the Ecclesiastic, and other Church reviews. He trans- 
lated the History of the Reformation, by Chancellor 
Massingberd, of Lincoln, and many smaller works into 
French. 

In Wiltshire, Avebury, Bishop Canning, Calne, and 
Chippenham were forward in the work ; and in Dorset- 
shire, Batcombe, Dorchester, and Compton Valence 
under its able vicar, Perceval Ward, where Mr. Ferrey, 
the architect, restored the church and was a frequent 
visitor. 

Ottery St. Mary was well known for some years as a 
country centre. 

Exeter had many working clergy : Mr. Alleyne at St. 



246 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Edmund's, Mr. Ingle at St. Olave's, Mr. Bliss at St. 
James's, Mr. Armstrong at St. Paul's. These churches, 
and that of St. Mary Steps, advanced in the work. The 
Eev. C. C. Bartholomew, perpetual curate of St. David's 
(afterwards prebendary), also author of Thirty -nine 
Sermons, chiefly practical, was a good divine and parish 
priest. Another divine was the Rev. John Lincoln 
Galton, incumbent of St. Sidwell's, who was author of 
Notes of Lectures on the Book of Canticles, and of one 
hundred and forty-two lectures on the Book of Revela- 
tion ; the principal excellence of these volumes lay in 
the careful and intelligent preference for ancient ex- 
positors. There lived also in Exeter Prebendary James 
Ford, who published some works of value to the clergy ; 
six volumes of commentaries were published, The Four 
Gospels, The Acts of the Apostles, and The Epistle to the 
Romans, illustrated chiefly, in the doctrinal and moral 
sense, from ancient and modern authors. Mr. Ford 
also translated twelve sermons by P. Paolo Segneri from 
the Italian. Then Canons Woolcombe and F. C. Cook 
should be named, and last, but not least, comes the 
Bishop, Henry of Exeter, the sturdy champion of all 
that was orthodox, the outspoken prelate in the House 
of Lords, most famous for his Letter to the Archbishop 
of Canterbury in the Gorham Case ; that letter, a thick 
8vo., 2s. 6d. pamphlet, in paper cover, had a circulation 
that might astonish the publishers of the present day ; 
for weeks it was sold as fast as it could be produced, 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 247 

almost wet from the press. The pamphlet was certainly 
one to cause a considerable amount of excitement : such 
a bold and forcible attack by a bishop on his archbishop 
was rare in the history of polemics, though the language 
was more moderate than that used by some Reformation 
bishops, as told by Mr. S. R. Maitland. Pamphlets are 
now almost a thing of the past ; but in those days if 
any one had a difference or a grievance or a pet theory, 
a pamphlet was the natural weapon, and the war was 
often carried on fierce and fast ; I need not say we have 
changed all that : the day of pamplets is past and over, 
and the large number of monthly reviews are the re- 
ceptacles for the plans and proposals, the views and 
opinions on all possible and impossible subjects in earth 
and heaven, from the Corn Laws, Reform, and Home 
Rule, down to the most sacred institutions of marriage 
and home life. We will not complain ; under this new 
plan we get, as it were, six or eight well-written pam- 
phlets for the shilling or two ; and to the writer it must 
be much more pleasant to write the article and get a 
cheque for it, than to print a pamphlet and have a heavy 
balance to pay when the printing and advertising account 
is made up. Most of us remember the story of the 
country parson who had written a sermon he thought 
sure to interest every single clergyman, and sent it to be 
printed, ordering a number that would come near to the 
number of clergy in the Church ; and the distress of the 
worthy priest on receiving a bill for some hundreds of 



248 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

pounds ; and then his relief at hearing from his good 
publishers that the bill really represented his order, 
which had happily not been executed, and that a few 
shillings were due to make up the balance on the few 
sold out of the 250 printed. The Bishop of Exeter's 
pamphlet no doubt produced a small fortune. His 
name was brought to the front very much in the long 
examination as to the troubles and difficulties of Miss 
Sellon in one of the earliest sisterhoods of the Revival 
at Devonport ; much wisdom and care has since been 
gained in sisterhood work, through such men as the 
Vicar of Wantage, Dean Butler, the Rev. T. T. Carter, 
Mr. Chamberlain of Oxford, Bishop Armstrong, Mr. 
Scudamore of Ditchingharn, Mr. Sharp of Horbury, Rev. 
G. R. Prynne, and Dr. Neale. The pioneers in this 
most difficult work were sure to suffer, but woman's 
work in the Church and the Revival is more than an 
established fact, it is now an immense power for good, 
acknowledged and approved on every side, one of the 
glories of our land. At Torquay and St. Mary Church, 
excellent work was carried on while his health lasted by 
Henry Newland, of whom we have spoken before ; he 
was for some time the brilliant preacher and hard work- 
ing Vicar of St. Mary Church. At Newton Abbot the 
Rev. W. B. Flower was working. Mr. Prynne, of St. 
Peter's, Plymouth, was undoubtedly the great worker 
and leader in the Church Movement in the West of 
England ; he had a daily celebration of the Holy 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 249 

Eucharist from 1849. The increase in the number of 
churches with daily celebrations would have rejoiced 
the hearts of early Tractarians. With him the work of 
sisterhoods revived. His Eucharistic Manual was in 
general use years before such manuals were common ; 
he wrote a small manual on the benefit of absolution 
that went through many editions. If the Church tone 
of the Plymouth churches is higher than almost any 
town in England, he was the leader, and went through 
severe persecution in the course of the work. He also 
wrote that beautiful hymn, in Hymns Ancient and 
Modern, on whose original committee he was a worker, 
" Jesu, Meek and Gentle". The record of his Thirty- 
five Years of Mission Work in a Garrison and Seaport 
Town, published in 1888, is the account of some most 
perfectly ordered parochial work. In Plymouth, when 
the late Bishop of Exeter sent Mr. Prynne, no parochial 
machinery existed, scarcely a place of worship or a 
school. He began with the stipend of 100 a year, 30 
more when a room was licensed, and 20 more when a 
church was consecrated. The amount of false and wicked 
statements made before the bishop, Henry of Exeter, 
in 1852, was almost inconceivable ; the whole matter 
concluding with the bishop's solemn declaration that 
Mr. Prynne was entirely blameless in every way. He 
was in his younger days Curate of St. Andrew's, Clifton, 
and there published his first volume of Plain Sermons. 
He published afterwards two more series of plain 



250 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

parochial sermons, short, practical, sound, and earnest, 
with a manly style of eloquence and full of sound doc- 
trine, just the sermons by townspeople most needed. 
At Devonport, all four churches, and especially St- 
Stephen's, were well worked. About 1859, a friend 
spent Christmastide at what was then called the Mission 
of St. Stephen, Devonport, when he was much impressed 
by the warm and devotional worship and the good 
fellowship at this great festival between parson and 
flock, and at the stead}' progress made by the Church, 
bringing vital and spiritual religion among a once in- 
different and even unfriendly people. It was the first 
Christmas and Epiphany since the consecration of their 
new church on the previous St. Matthew's Day ; the 
church was decorated by a band of young mechanics 
and needlewomen, and the sisters of the incumbent, 
who gave their lives to church and parish work ; the 
choral services and celebrations were simple and hearty, 
led by a choir of ten, chiefly mechanics, and twelve boys 
of the same class. On New Year's Eve, the Eev. James 
Bliss, Vicar of St. James's, Plymouth, preached, and 
there was an early celebration on New Year's Day. A 
course of Advent sermons had been preached, and after 
the last an offertory was made, by which sixty of the 
poorest families had good Christmas fare provided. On 
January 4th, the choir, assisted by that of St. James's and 
St. Mary's, Devonport, and St. Peter's, Plymouth, gave a 
bright musical evening and social gathering to all the 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 251 

members of the church glees, carols, songs a help to 
those who had but little brightness or recreation in 
their lives. This was followed by a presentation to the 
Eev. G. W. Proctor, the incumbent, of an address, 
telling how his labours had been appreciated. 

Cornwall had not a few parishes where the work of 
the Church Movement had penetrated ; among them, 
Morwenstow, under E. S. Hawker, the well-known 
poet, author of Echoes from Old Cornwall, and of 
that beautiful poem, The Poor Man and his Parish 
Church ; Mr. Williams of Porthleven ; also Baldhu, 
Falmouth (the Church of King Charles the Martyr), 
Kenwyn, Helston, Laneast, Marham, Penzance, Sheviock, 
St. Ives, St. Veep, Truro, and St. Colunib Major, where 
Dr. Walker laboured for many years, and afterwards 
was founder of All Saints', Netting Hill, in memory of 
his father and mother. In North Devon, Barnstaple 
and Bideford were well forward, and at Ilfracombe, the 
years of earnest parish work of the late Rev. J. M. 
Chanter, the vicar, are fresh in the memory of many a 
churchman who visited that lovely place, as well as in 
the hearts of his own people ; a model of the old ortho- 
dox Tractarian, friend of Dr. Pusey and many others of 
the School. He was the author of a volume of sermons 
published in 1858, and also of Help to an Exposition of 
the Church Catechism. 

In Somersetshire, Wrington, near Chard, was for years 
under a vicar who was a theologian, scholar, poet, a 



252 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

thorough churchman, and a worker among his people 
and schools; the Eev. Henry Thompson was a Cam- 
bridge man of good standing ; his parish festivals were 
from year to year very happy times indeed. Among 
other works he wrote a life of Hannah More, who was a 
parishioner ; he also wrote Concionalia, outlines of ser- 
mons for the year. He was editor of a book of Original 
Ballads ty Living Authors, 1850, a work well illustrated; 
besides an admirable preface Mr. Thompson wrote the 
Martyrdom of St. Edmund, Cromwell and his Daughter, 
and The Morning Sacrifice. Among the contributors 
were E. A. Freeman, Archdeacon Churton, Mackenzie 
Walcott, Eev. W. J. Deane, and J. M. Neale. There 
was also daily service and weekly communion at Buck- 
land Dinham, Butleigh, Leigh-on-Mendip, Mells (where 
was Mr. Horner, a well-known and most able man), and 
St. Paul's, Bedminster, under Mr. Eland : daily services 
at Milverton, North Petherton, Shepton Beauchamp, 
and Kingston. In this county also is Frorne, the scene of 
Mr. Bennett's life-work after leaving St. Paul's, Knights- 
bridge, work still well kept up by the present vicar. 
Neither must we omit East Brent, the parish of the 
ready and valiant champion, Archdeacon Denison, the 
preacher of the sermons on the Holy Eucharist at Wells 
Cathedral, all prepared most carefully beforehand, and, 
I think, preached from the printed copy ; bravely were 
the sermons defended in the trial, " Ditcher v. Denison," 
in the proceedings against the Archdeacon of Taunton, 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 253 

in 1854, 1855, 1856, and in the printed defence and 
evidence. A dignitary of Wells was said to have com- 
plained that the Archdeacon kept them all in hot water 
tor so many years ; to which the Archdeacon gave the 
characteristic reply : " Well, hot water is better than 
cold". Many will remember the Charges of 1852, 1859, 
and 1860, given with all the Archdeacon's force and 
spirit, and his sermons on " Church and School," and 
" National Unthankfulness ". Such brilliant enthusiasm 
and energy had its value in the work of the Church 
Movement without it, but little would have been 
effected . 

In much of the work of defence and research, Arch- 
deacon Denison had a most painstaking and learned 
assistant in the Rev. C. S. Grueber, incumbent of Ham- 
bridge, in this county ; he was author of Considerations 
on the Opinion of the Court at Bath, Two Letters to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, one to the Eight Hon. Stephen 
Lushiugton, on Articles XXVIII. and XXIX., Facts on 
the Court at Bath and Commission at Clevedon. Mr. 
Grueber is also the author of manuals on Church 
teaching and doctrine. The research bestowed by Mr. 
Grueber on some of the Thirty-nine Articles was almost 
beyond conception; some who were brought up to think 
the Articles a sort of bulwark of Puritanism, must 
have been very much surprised at the result of those 
researches. 

Many recollections of the early Church Movement 



254 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

centre about Gloucestershire, recollections of the deepest 
interest; of the two Kebles especially, John, some 
time curate to his father at Fairford, and Thomas, so 
many years Vicar of Bisley; of Abbenhall, under James 
Davies, one of Isaac Williams' first curacies ; of Stinch- 
combe, where Isaac Williams lived and wrote his poems 
and commentaries, acting as curate to his brother-in- 
law, Sir George Prevost, quite recently called to his 
rest, leaving us his valuable memoir of Isaac Williams. 
Bussage was the scene of Mr. Suckling's few years of 
labour, and where one of the earliest penitentiaries was 
founded. At Tidenham, Bishop Armstrong (of Grahams- 
town) was vicar eight years ; he it was who was so deeply 
interested in penitentiaries, and wrote and worked for 
them ; here, as at St. Paul's, Exeter, Mr. Armstrong 
lived all opposition down, and was a pattern of the 
hard-working parish priest. He published several 
volumes of sermons, a set for the festivals, and edited 
and wrote for the series of Sermons, and Tracts for the 
Christian seasons, the Pastor in his Closet, etc. The 
Eev. T. T. Carter wrote the life of Bishop Armstrong, 
a book still most interesting. 

At St. Mark's, Lower Easton, and at Kempsford, 
Bishop Woodford, of Ely, was vicar for some years ; 
his brilliant preaching and devout care for the services 
of the Church, were as conspicuous and telling as were 
his higher labours afterwards as Vicar of Leeds and 
Bishop of Ely. At Cheltenham, in the reign of Mr. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 255 

Close, the opponent of the Cambridge Camden and 
Ecclesiological Society, the Rev. Alexander Watson 
was at St. John's, then the only church in Cheltenham 
with daily service and weekly Communion. Mr. 
Watson was a busy writer in the cause, and edited five 
volumes of Sermons for Sundays, by the first preachers 
of the day ; the Churchman's Sunday Evenings at Home, 
a set of family readings; and the Devout Churchman. 
He was also author of The Seven sayings on the Cross, 
Sermons on the Beatitudes, A Catechism on the Prayer- 
Hook, and other works. Clifton was for some years a 
centre of the Evangelical school, but in 1868 the 
church of All Saints was commenced ; it was finished 
in 1872, and for twenty years a record of church work 
under Mr. (now Dean) Randall can be made, bringing 
home the Church's work and worship to many thousands. 
St. Raphael's, Bristol, built by the munificence of Canon 
Miles in 1859, fell a victim to the opposition, and was 
closed for some years; it has happily just been re- 
opened, let us hope to a brighter and even more useful 
future. We may not forget to name the early Bristol 
Church Union under Archdeacon Denison and Mr. 
Coles, a forerunner of our English Church Union. 
Many other places in Gloucestershire might be named, 
such as Cam, Cirencester, Dursley, Frenchay, Overbury, 
Sodbury, Stow-on- the- Wold, Stroud, Tetbury, and 
Stapleton the beautiful church built by Bishop Monk 
where the Rev. R. II. Chope was some time curate; 



256 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

not forgetting Kemerton, near Tewkesbury, where 
Archdeacon Thorp was vicar ; his influence among the 
younger clergy was of the very best and highest. 
Almost within sight of Gloucester, though in Hereford- 
shire, is the beautiful church of Eastnor rebuilt by the 
late Lord Somers. Mr. Pulling, one of the compilers 
of Hymns, Ancient and Modern, was the rector. 

Passing by Worcester with its beautiful cathedral 
and hard-working clergy, such as the Rev. the Hon. 
H. Douglas of St. Paul's, we come to the Midlands and 
the towns surrounding Birmingham ; Wednesbury 
under Mr. Trigg; West Bromwich, Mr. Willett; Walsall, 
Mr. Allen and Mr. Hodgson ; S. Michael's, Caldmore, 
Mr. J. Fenwiek Laing; and at Aldridge, Willenhall, 
Rugeley, and Atherstone Church work was done, and 
great progress made. That Birmingham was the most 
unlikely town to fall in with a movement, the object 
of which was to revive the Catholic doctrine and 
practice of the Church of England, a glance at the 
religious life of Birmingham during the past century 
will convince us. The Unitarianism of Dr. Priestly, 
the Congregationalism of John Angell James, and the 
secular Christianity of George Dawson, had leavened 
a large proportion of the inhabitants; and the parish 
churches, some twenty in number, were nearly all in 
the hands of Evangelical or Low Church incumbents ; 
there was very little of hearty life and work ; Socinian- 
ism, Erastianism, and Dissent were the really active and 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 257 

working agencies, and so they continued till long after 
the Church Movement had penetrated into other towns 
and villages. Few of the churches added much to the 
architectural beauty of the town (or city which it now 
is). The presence of a building like Christ Church, 
directly opposite to the handsome erections of the 
Council House, Art Gallery, Free Libraries, Mason 
College, and Midland Institute, was a positive eyesore, 
and the dreary formal service seemed to vie with the 
building in plainness ; but what could be hoped of a 
church the foundation stone of which was laid with 
the following words : " I lay this stone in the name and 
by command of his most gracious Majesty King George 
the Third". A special work in Birmingham is worth 
naming, the early Sunday morning classes at half- 
past seven for working people, at which writing, 
arithmetic, geography, etc., were taught by some of the 
leading laymen of the city. Many hundreds attended 
these classes, and the fact was a complete reply to 
those who argued against the Archbishop of York's plea 
for early instead of evening Communions ; the people 
could and did get up early, and go some distance for 
this secular learning, and it was said they would do the 
same in religion if they had been taught to set a high 
value on its means of grace. The earliest sign of a 
stirring of Church life was at St. Paul's about 1841, 
under Mr. Latimer and his curate, James Pollock. 
Aston, a suburb almost larger than Birmingham, was 

'7 



258 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

for a short time under a good churchman, Mr. Peake, 
and in this parish was the district of Holy Trinity, 
Bordesley, where Dr. Oldknow, a learned divine and 
writer and an excellent parish priest, worked till his 
death ; he was the friend of Dr. Neale and many of the 
early Tract arians, and the result of his labours was 
shown in a hearty and beautiful service appreciated by 
a large congregation. The district church of All Saints, 
Small Heath, was started in his time. Dr. Oldknow 
was succeeded by Mr. Enraght, of whom we have 
spoken, and he brought youth and strength, and an 
increase of life and beauty to the work and services, 
together with a hearty loving kindness and helpfulness 
that made the vicarage and its inmates most deeply 
loved. The prosecution of the vicar and his separation 
from his people was the work of a party persecution, 
and, unfortunately, it prevailed. No one could say that 
Mr. Enraght did not do his utmost; there were no 
aggrieved parishioners, but a regular congregation of 
4UO or 500 every Sunday morning, and 700 or 800 
every Sunday evening, with a large proportion of early 
Communicants; not one of these complained of the 
service or wished it altered ; and, moreover, for months 
Mr. Enraght discontinued the things complained of at 
the express desire of his bishop, in the hope of peace 
and of stopping the prosecution ; but in spite of this 
the persecutors determined to carry it on to the bitter 
end, and in due course Mr. Enraght was imprisoned in 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 259 

Warwick Gaol. To describe his leaving the vicarage 
where his people had ever found in himself and Mrs. 
Enraght helpers in all times of need and trouble, is 
beyond my power ; most pathetic and touching was the 
going to Warwick, his friends, and even those who had 
to carry out the sentence, were far more touched and 
overcome than was the vicar himself, who went through 
it with a calm fixed patience, with thorough cheerful- 
ness and resignation. For nearly two months he was 
kept in Warwick Gaol, and during that time the great 
meeting was held when Birmingham Town Hall was 
filled from end to end, and so many came from far and 
near to protest against the imprisonment ; the singing 
of the " Church's one Foundation " at the end was 
something impressive and touching. In the gaol he 
received correspondence from all parts of the country, 
a fair specimen was the letter: "Your imprisonment, 
sir, is a disgrace to all concerned in it, except your- 
self ". He was visited by numerous friends, all anxious 
personally to express their sympathy ; he was of course 
visited by his wife, and by his children, most of whom 
were then very young ; on one occasion when going to 
dine in the prison, one of the youngest, a little girl, 
was pathetically anxious to know "if they would have 
to dine with the other robbers ". At the end of nearly 
two mouths the question of the original writ was raised, 
and Mr. Enraght was released, not, as he said, that he 
wished to get out of prison by a legal quibble. Lord 



260 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Justice James said that he thought it was quite as 
trivial a thing to prosecute a clergyman for wearing a 
chasuble, as it was to get a clergyman out of gaol on a 
bad writ. As the governor of the gaol, no High Church- 
man, said to one of his visitors : " The sooner that 
gentleman is out, sir, the better, for he is altogether in 
the wrong place". So after nearly two months in 
prison, Mr. Enraght was released, and many friends 
went over to Warwick, and a host also met him at the 
station in New Street, Birmingham ; Mr. Jacob Kow- 
lands, his solicitor; the Kev. W. Elwin, his curate 
(now Vicar of St. Andrew's, Worthing) ; the Eev. J. 
Lupton Taylor also assisting, who afterwards went to 
Africa as a missionary, and there was early called to 
his rest (he was brother to a well-known surgeon in 
Brighton, J. E. Taylor, some time churchwarden to 
Mr. Enraght) ; Rev. F. B. Cross, and James and T. B. 
Pollock, Mr. Harris, vicar's warden, and many others. 
They in the evening welcomed Mr. Enraght back with 
enthusiasm at a crowded meeting. These imprison- 
ments are now matters of past history, the Church 
Association, no doubt, feeling that the effect of such an 
one as I have tried to describe, would do anything but 
advance its cause. The persecutors did not cease until 
they had driven Mr. Enraght from his living, and 
deprived the congregation of one of the very best of 
friends and parish priests. 

Some years before this a work in the same parish 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 261 

was begun, which has, happily, not only not been 
crushed, but has prospered and increased in a most 
wonderful way. From his curacy at St. Paul's, the 
Rev. James Pollock started the mission of St. Alban's 
in a temporary building, and laboured on through the 
most violent opposition and rioting ; living it all down 
and gaining over large numbers of people in a district 
not very different at first from that of St. George's-in- 
the-East and RatclifT Highway. In this work, his 
brother, the Rev. T. B. Pollock, joined, and in the 
course of years a noble church, one of Mr. Pearson's 
grand designs, was built, and after a while consecrated ; 
a very beautiful Ritual, and a large congregation, with 
a great proportion of men, testified to the success 
of the unsparing labour and devotion of these two 
brothers. To James Pollock we are indebted for 
several useful and practical manuals, and to T. B. 
Pollock for some of those metrical Litanies in Hymns 
Ancient and Modern with which we are all familiar. 

Though not with success as to numbers, the Rev. 
Robert Dell worked at St. Peter's, Dale End, almost as 
difficult to deal with as one of our own City parishes ; 
not that the people all lived away and came in only for 
business during the week, but it seemed as if from 
Saturday night to Monday morning all the shops and 
houses were sealed up, and the inhabitants not to be 
found or got at. There was a good choir, and the 
service was carefully rendered ; the poor and schools 



262 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

were well cared for and helped by Mr. Dell, his wife, 
and children, who also brought as much brightness and 
recreation into their work as they possibly could. 

In the surrounding villages and small towns, matters 
were here and there advancing on Church lines. North- 
field for years was, of course, prominent under Mr. 
Clarke, a very well-known early Tractarian, and at 
Moseley, King's Heath, King's Norton, Smethwick, 
Smallheath, Sparkbrook, careful and choral services 
were the rule. 

Corning nearer still, Edgbaston, the old parish, and 
the district churches of St. James and St. George were 
shaking off' the old-fashioned ways, and making re- 
ligion brighter and nearer to the Prayer-Book model ; 
this was especially the case with old Edgbaston Parish 
Church, under the Eev. Creswell Strange. It is some 
years since I was there, and then the additions and 
improvements were only just beginning, but many of 
the old-fashioned forms and ceremonies were giving 
way to some brighter and more reverent ways. But 
then the old pews were still there, and that admirable 
and successful romance, John Inglesant, had been 
published ; and, I must confess, it was a shock to me 
to see the author of that good book go into a pew and 
fasten the door after him ; it did seem out of the order 
of things that the author, who had just made us all so 
interested in Nicholas Ferrar and his family, George 
Herbert and other church worthies of the seven- 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 263 

teenth century should occupy a nineteenth-century 
pew! One did not expect that, like the late Mr. Puin 
at Ramsgate, he should sit under a mediaeval canopy at 
the head of his dining hall but a pew ! George 
Herbert speaks about it 

Kneeling n'er spoilt silk stockings ; quit thy state, 
All equal are within the church's gate. 

and how can that be if some are in pews ? 

On my declining a seat in a pew, the verger kindly 
gave me one where I was close to some mural tablets, 
one of which attracted my attention by its wonderful 
inscription recording the death of the two wives of a 
Birmingham magistrate ; the virtues and perfections 
of the first wife were elaborately set forth, and then it 
was recorded how the second wife admirably took up 
the position and duties of the first, and carried them 
out with an equal, if not greater amount of success ; 
it was droll ; I have read a great many effusions of the 
kind, but this one very much disturbed my gravity 
during the service. And here I would leave this great 
manufacturing centre, but as we are close to the 
Hagley Road, Edgbaston, in which stands the oratory 
of St. Philip Neri where Dr. Newman spent the last 
forty years of his life, it would not do to pass over a 
spot so interesting to English Churchmen ; for as we 
assuredly value much the record of Dr. Newman's 
life and work in the English Church, most ably told in 



264 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

the earlier chapters of his Apologia, and in his letters 
so wisely entrusted by him to Miss Mozley, the two 
volumes of which all English Churchmen may prize, so 
the rest of his life after he left us, and the place where 
he spent it will have their own special attraction. The 
Oratory is a large pile of buildings of no architectural 
pretensions, covers a good deal of ground, is built chiefly 
of red brick and consists of the church with residences 
for the Fathers of the Order, and a large school for the 
education of sons of the Eoman Catholic gentry. The 
large school-room, or rather, the one side wall of it, is 
the chief object to be seen as you pass by in the road, 
and in that room were given the school entertainments, 
Greek plays and music, at which up to the last Dr. 
Newman was almost always to be seen. The entrance 
gate is quite plain, and brings you into a long corridor 
leading to the church, a fairly spacious one, but with 
no pretensions to beauty, architecturally or otherwise, 
and with no great amount of ornament ; Dr. Newman 
had been made a Cardinal just before one of my visits, 
and his throne and canopy looked painfully new. The 
various altars were of interest, especially the one at 
which the Cardinal daily celebrated. In the corridor 
were white marble tablets commemorating the departed 
Fathers, and one felt much at home with the names of 
those, such as St. John, Dalgairns, Faber, Caswell, etc. 
The secretary to Dr. Newman kindly showed us over, 
and in him we recognised an English clergyman, once 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 265 

vicar of a suburban London parish, twice married, now 
a priest and a Father of the Oratory. It is curious that 
the Fathers in 1852 should have fixed themselves in 
Birmingham of all towns in the land, and still more 
curious to see the friendly and cordial welcome given to 
the Oratorians by the Unitarian town and its chief 
residents ; showing them much attention, and even, on 
occasions, special recognition ; but in no religious sense 
could the Oratorians be called a power or influence in 
Birmingham. 



CHAPTER XI. 

IF an apology is needed for the rambling, not to say 
random nature of these recollections I most willingly 
make it. We will return to Oxford, the home to 
which the hearts of many Englishmen turned as the 
birthplace of the " Oxford Movement," and indeed 
there was a magic in the very name of that city for 
some twenty or thirty years. It witnessed the steady 
earnestness and industry of the Tract writers, the brilliant 
scholarship of such men as Newman, Keble, Froude, 
Pusey, Marriott, Mozley, Palmer, Morris, and others, 
the enormous labour of writing, translating, editing, 
collating ; a perfect bibliography of the Movement has 
yet to be made, and may justify the wonder and ad- 
miration, which the very name of Oxford raised all 
over the country, extending to India, America, and 
indeed all the Colonies. The practical results too in 
Oxford itself may claim some attention. Many of the 
Tractarian clergy were parish priests also, and their 
work was felt in their several parishes. In the early 
days of Newman at St. Mary's he was a working parish 
priest as well as a man of deep piety and astonishing 
genius ; after him came C. P. Eden, editor of one of the 



RECOLLECTIONS OF OXFORD MOVEMENT. 267 

Anglo-Catholic Library series, and then Charles Marriott. 
Bishop Hobhouse, Denison and Hamilton at JSt. Peter's- 
in-the-East were model parish priests; of this last 
named vicar Canon Liddon tells us so much in his 
short memoir, of his fervent preaching, reverence and 
wise-heartedness, giving impressions of religious earnest- 
ness to all around him. After him came William 
Adams author of The Shadow of the Cross, etc., who, 
had he lived, might have even excelled his two pre- 
decessors ; the memory of these three pervaded the 
parish up to the early fifties. As to other parish work 
we read of Mrs. Pusey, while health lasted, under her 
parish clergyman visiting in St. Aldate's and St. Ebbe's, 
and in Dr. Acland's report of the cholera time under 
the self-sacrificing Charles Marriott, of Miss Hughes 
and Miss Skene visiting the cholera patients in their 
homes and in the temporary hospitals. Later on St. 
Paul's was built by Mr. Combe, and Mr. Hackman, 
chaplain of Christchurch, 1837, a famous preacher, was 
vicar the parish being taken out of St. Thomas's. 
St. Barnabas is an off-shoot of St. Paul's and was 
also built by Mr. Combe ; the vicar was appointed 
under the advice of the late Dean Butler then Vicar 
of Wantage ; St. Philip and St. James's was built about 
1864. The story of St. Thomas's, Oxford, and its re- 
markable vicar, forms a record in itself of the practical 
side of the Church Movement and its influence in 
parochial work there. Mr. Chamberlain, student of 



268 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Christ Church and afterwards honorary canon, a man 
of scholarship and ability, of courage, determination and 
untiring energy, selected this parish, neglected for years, 
poor, and once the haunt of thieves and harlots, for the 
work of his life ; and for nearly fifty years with curates, 
one of whom was Bishop Forbes of Brechin, Sisters of 
Mercy, and all the helps of frequent services, through 
abuse and persecution, wrought a change that must be 
seen to be realised. He was also one of the most 
active writers and editors in that part of Church litera- 
ture which treated of simple dogmatic teaching, man- 
uals and guides to devotion and doctrine, and much 
scriptural instruction. On his death in 1892, a solid 
block of granite with a cross was a most appropriate 
monument to this brave and determined vicar. At 
daily service and weekly Communion one well-known 
figure was that of Philip Edward Pusey, Dr. Pusey's 
only son, who, though debarred by great bodily infirm- 
ity from Holy Orders, worked well with his pen for 
the Church Movement, editing the works of Cyril of 
Alexandria for the library of the fathers, always 
bravely cheerful under his life-long suffering. Of the 
surrounding parishes not much can be said in the early 
times if we except Yarnton, under Vaughan Thomas 
and Islip under F. Trench. 

In the county must be named Cuddesdon with its 
college and excellent parish work, Cowley with the 
preaching fathers and daily services and frequent 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 269 

Communions, Burford, Cropredy, Henley, Iffley, P.an- 
bury, and Bloxham. 

In Berkshire, Boyne Hill was the scene of Mr. 
Gresley's latest labours. Wantage, for years under 
Dean Butler, a centre whence came the working sister- 
hoods ; Cosby White, Mr. Mackonochie and Canon 
Liddou having been sometime curates. Eadley College 
under Dr. Sewell, and its still successful wardens. 
Bradtield was also a Church College, founded by Mr. 
Stevens, the vicar of the parish. Cranborne under 
Conyngham Ellis, author of From the Font to the 
Altar; Lambourne under E. Milman afterwards Bishop 
of Calcutta ; Clewer, with its long record of parish work 
and Sisterhoods, under the Eev. T. T. Carter the great 
spiritual writer of the Movement and parish work 
could be told of at Abingdon, Reading, Huugerford, 
and Newbury. 

In Buckinghamshire were Aylesbury and Colnbrook ; 
Little Marlow under the Eev. J. Baines already named ; 
Aston Clinton and Hambledon, long the vicarage of 
the Eev. W. H. Eidley, author of one of the earliest 
and most useful manuals for Holy Communion, a 
man of the working school of parish priests, and no 
doubt fully in accord with the chief resident in his 
parish, the late Eight Hon. W. H. Smith, the record 
of whose active and beautiful life has been so ably 
written for us by Sir Herbert Maxwell. 

To pass on northwards in Suffolk, Barsham, Claydon, 



2 7 o RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

and Elmswell had daily services ; at St. Matthew's, 
Ipswich, Mr. Gay (of Archbishop Tenison's Chapel) 
was working ; and at St. Mary le Tower, Mr. St. Leger. 
In Norfolk, East Dereham, Heigham, and Ditchingham 
may be named, especially the latter where the Eev. W. 
E. Scudamore had one of the earliest houses of mercy 
and sisterhoods. He was also the author of Steps 
to the Altar, 1846, one of the most widely used 
manuals. 

Lincolnshire had many parish priests working on the 
lines of the Movement at Gainsborough, Kelsey, Lea ; 
Edmund Huff, a scholar and prizeman of Cambridge, 
was vicar of little Cawthorpe in this county from 1853. 
Another model parish parson also was the Eev. J. E. 
West, Eector of Wrawby by Brigg and Canon of 
Lincoln, lately called to his rest. He worked in his 
parish for nearly sixty years, a Cambridge man of the 
highest order of genius and learning, author of Tracts 
on Church Principles, and many sermons; he has been 
truly described as one with a firm grasp of principles, 
clearness of judgment and unselfish consideration for 
others. In Derbyshire the Eev. B. Webb was at Sheen, 
the friend of Dr. Neale and Mr. Beresford Hope; at 
Derby Mr. Hope, at Bakewell Mr. Cornish, at Morley 
Samuel Fox, an industrious writer in the cause, author 
of Monks and Monasteries, the Noble Army of Martyrs ; 
he also published an abridged edition of Markland's 
Reverence Due to Holy Places. When speaking of 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 271 

Birmingham the great parish work done for years by 
Dr. Claughton at Kidderminster should have been 
named. In Staffordshire there were many working 
centres, such as Walsall, Aldridge, West Bromwich, 
Denstone, Handsworth, Eugeley, Willenhall, Wednes- 
bury, where Mr. Trigg worked, and last but by no means 
least, Elford, the parish where the Rev. F. E. Paget was 
rector from 1835. To him (as to Mr. Gresley) is due 
an immense influence over thousands of young church 
people by means of his bright interesting tales and 
stories full of point and wit, bearing on many forgotten 
and neglected points of Church doctrine and practice, 
such as : Tales of the Village ; St. A ntholins, or Old 
Churches and New ; The Warden of Berldnghall, or Rich 
and Poor ; Tales of the Village Children ; The Christian's 
Day; Sursum Cor da, and other Books of Devotion; Sermons 
on the duties of daily life ; The Burial Service ; Saints 
Days, etc. Mr. Paget was said to have given an 
adverse opinion of the principle of Tract 90 which he 
afterwards regretted. 

In Liverpool early work was done under Cecil Wray, 
Vicar of St. Martin's ; at St. James the Less by Kevs. 
Bramah, Parnell, and George Chapman, and later on 
at St. Margaret's. Daily services and frequent com- 
munions at Atherton, Barrow-in-Furness, Kirkham, 
Leigh, etc. ; at Manchester, St. Alban's, St. George's, 
Holy Trinity, St. John Baptist's, under workers like Mr. 
Sedgwick and others. 



272 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

In Yorkshire the work at Leeds has been well told 
in the lives of Dr. Hook and Dr. Pusey ; in the county, 
Eoy stone where W. H. Teale, author of many excellent 
biographies and other works, was vicar ; the influence of 
the Movement was extending to many other parishes, 
Baldersby, Barnsley, Halifax, Doncaster, Middles- 
borough, Coatham, Burley-in-Wharfdale, Bradford. 
The example and splendid work of the venerable Vicar 
of Horbury, near Wakefield, spread about the county 
the best of influences. He was ordained in that 
eventful year 1833, and in 1834 went to Horbury where 
he is working still. With his schools, orphanages, 
sisterhoods and house of mercy, he has fostered a 
revival of faith, and a renewal of living energy and 
practice. In Scotland the Movement went forward 
from many important foundations and centres : Cum- 
brae College, Glenalmond, St. Columba's College, 
Edinburgh, Crieff College, and Orphans' Home ; in the 
lives and work of eminent laymen such as Lord 
Glasgow, Lord Forbes, Sir Archibald Edmonstone, G. 
K. J. Gordon of Ellon; of such bishops as Jolly, Words- 
worth, Forbes, Eden, Cotterill and others ; of clergy such 
as Dean Torry (whose biography was written by Dr. 
Neale), Fortescue, Moir, Pirie, C. Wagstaff, Comper, 
Canon Humble, and Patrick Cheyne, who at St. John's, 
Aberdeen, went through much trial and persecution in 
his forty years ministry, remaining as has been said 
ever devoted to every part of his calling frequent and 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 273 

reverent services, unfailing attention to the poor, a 
watchful interest over the young; of quiet, retiring 
habits, during the time of his prohibition he was chiefly 
to be found at work in his schools. In a very large 
proportion of the churches in Scotland there was daily 
service and weekly Communion. 

Even in Ireland the Movement was felt, and much 
improvement in the churches and services might be 
recorded. Such names as Archer Butler, J. H. Todd, 
Mr. Maturin of Grangegorman, Woodward of Fethard, 
Dawson, Travers, Smith, etc., are still had in remem- 
brance. 

The record of missionary bishops, most of whom were 
in accord with the main principles of the Tractarian 
Movement would form a noble history of work ; Heber, 
Selwyn, Patteson, Abraham, Nixon, Medley, Armstrong, 
Mackenzie, Tozer, Steere, and very many others. 



18 



CHAPTEK XII. 

I WOULD wish to point out that although in these 
sketches and recollections necessarily the clergy of 
the various places have chiefly been named, one must 
by no means fall in with the notion that the Church 
Movement with its new life and earnestness, and its 
advance in all that was good, fine, and beautiful in 
devotion and worship, was merely a clerical movement ; 
nothing can be farther from the truth, and to represent 
the clergy as pressing ceremonial on an unwilling laity 
is simply most untrue to facts. Certainly, the clergy 
set themselves to teach and preach the great but much 
forgotten truths, the faith and practice : and not only 
by preaching, but by every outward act and gesture 
did they teach reverence and care in all parts of divine 
service ; but they had with them ever a large body of 
laymen, who were ready not only to follow, but con- 
stantly to take the lead in the many outward ex- 
pressions of revived religion shown in the beautiful 
churches, services and ritual, in schools, sisterhoods, 
hospitals, homes, refuges, etc. 

I will now try to tell more fully of the laymen's share 
in the Church Movement. There was, as we have seen, 

(274) 



RECOLLECTIONS OF OXFORD MOVEMENT. 275 

much opposition to the Movement from the popular 
evangelical preachers, such as Dean Close, Hugh 
Stowell, Hugh MacNeile, and a host of others, and 
the opposing laity were also numerous and powerful. 
There was Lord John Russell's famous letter to the 
Bishop of Durham, on the new Roman Catholic hier- 
archy just then established in England, which was 
made the medium of attack on the Tractarian claims 
for the Church and hierarchy of England. And with 
Lord John Russell in principle were Lord Shaftesbury 
(then Lord Ashley), Mr. Baring, Mr. Bevan, Mr. 
Whalley and others. It was quite a common saying 
that Lord John Russell and Lord Ashley had some 
voice in the appointment of the bishops in Lord 
Palmerston's time, and it was acknowledged that their 
selections were not always a success ; one of Punch's 
cartoons represented these two as penitent Puritans, 
confessing to each other that they had made a mess 
of it ; and there was one cartoon of Lord John Russell 
having his fortune told by a gipsy, and among other 
things she says, " Beware of aprons, little gentleman, 
specially silk J uns ". 

About 1850 the papers for the most part were in 
fierce opposition to the Tractarian Movement, and for 
months Punch, following in the wake of The Times, 
caricatured the clergy, their dress, vestments, ornaments, 
etc., to its heart's content. Huge meetings were held, 
and there was abundance of denunciations, the chief 



276 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

laymen of the opposing party doing their utmost to 
convert the anti-papal excitement of the day into 
popular indignation against the High Church party, 
gaining a cheap popularity with the rest of the world 
who had not taken the trouble to ascertain what the 
real opinions of that party were. In one of the 
speeches, alluding to St. Barnabas's, Pimlico, Lord Ashley 
announced his preference to "worship with Lydia on 
the banks of the riverside rather than with hundreds 
of surpliced priests in the temple of St. Barnabas ". 
This sentence was clearly considered the gem of the 
meeting, as on its repetition the whole meeting rose 
with loud and prolonged cheering. 

The Church Movement had many learned, intelligent 
laymen; and we cannot take a brighter example, or 
one more worthy to be mentioned first, than A. J. B. 
Beresford Hope, of Bedgbury Park, a man of great 
wealth, who devoted that and his talents to the cause 
of the Church; a thorough champion on all points, 
ready to speak and write on her behalf. He was at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1841. and was heart 
and soul with Neale, Webb and the Ecclesiological 
Society : in archseology and architecture he was an 
authority. In his place in Parliament his voice, in his 
slow, rather harsh, but very impressive way, would be 
raised on every Church question ; he recorded his 
undying, undeviating, and unmitigated opposition to 
the Deceased Wife's Sister Bill. He purchased and 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 277 

rebuilt St. Augustine's, Canterbury, as a Missionary 
College; had much to do with All Saints, Margaret 
Street, and St. Andrew's, Wells Street ; rebuilt Sheen 
Church on his estate in Staffordshire, where he ap- 
pointed the Kev. B. Webb as incumbent. He, with 
a few others, founded the Saturday Review. His 
works and articles were numerous : the chief were, On 
the Greek and Roman Writers; The Church Cause 
and the Church Party; English Cathedrals; Wor- 
ship in the Church of England. Not only was 
he a writer, but he was a thoroughly earnest 
worker in the Church Movement. His Letters on 
Church Matters, by D.C.L., to the Morning Chronicle^ 
were an exhaustive popular defence on the chief 
points of debate in public speeches and meetings 
about 1850. I will reproduce a passage of his on 
Lord Ashley's speech about Lydia, alluded to just 
now : 

" Lord Ashley's magnanimous resolve was simply a 
piece of sonorous nonsense founded upon ignorance of 
the Greek original, which I hope it is not Popery to 
prefer to the Authorised Version. The noble orator 
read in the latter that St. Paul worshipped with Lydia 
by a riverside, ' where prayer was wont to be made ' ; 
and his imagination at once pictured to him the 
spectacle of something like what we never see in these 
days, except at a Primitive Methodist revival and 
with a very safe forethought he closed with this, rather 



278 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

than with the worship of the Church or * temple ' of 
St. Barnabas. Permit me to assert that his lordship 
cannot have read, or if he has read must have forgotten, 
what St. Luke really wrote, which was, ' where there 
was a customary Trpocreu^,' that is a house or station 
of prayer or oratory : so that instead of having bound 
himself to turn out upon the river's bank where he 
listed, his lordship only asserted his preference for 
frequenting some stated house of prayer by the water- 
side, which might be less gorgeous than St. Barnabas's 
and might be more so." 

The whole of these letters to the Morning Chronicle 
form a fair reply to objections on the most crucial 
points in dispute at that exciting time. Mr. Beresford 
Hope was a D.C.L. of Cambridge, and a Privy Coun- 
cillor. 

Lord Addington (formerly J. G. Hubbard), the 
munificent founder of St. Alban's, Holborn, was another 
staunch Churchman, and, though not a writer or author, 
was a speaker ever ready in the Church's cause, a most 
kind and generous friend to all in need of a friend, and 
especially to the clergy. Mrs. Hubbard, was also 
known to be a ready help to very many in sub- 
stantial ways, especially the poorer curates. On one 
occasion a friend was complaining to her of the very 
long sermons preached by a curate. " Yes, I know," 
was her reply, " the good man evidently tries to 
bring the whole Gospel into every sermon ; no wonder 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 



279 



he never knows when to stop." At Addington, Bucks, 
where the Rev. T. W. Perry was long time curate under 
Mr. Baker, Mr. Hubbard rebuilt the church in 1859, 
and, though a financier and first-rate man of business, 
he was seen at his best at his own place in the country. 
At the consecration of his church at Addingtou, his 
speech was a model of what good landlords and land 
proprietors should say and feel. He tells how he had 
but done his duty ; that he would have felt no sort of 
satisfaction, night or morning, with what God had 
given him if he had built his own house and left God's 
house in ruins. As a contrast to the general com- 
promise of Church principles displayed on the hustings, 
Mr. Hubbard's speech on his nomination to Bucking- 
ham was a most manly, plain, and straightforward 
statement. Parts of it would be interesting, especially 
where he speaks of being High Church, when he says : 
" Is the Church not high ? high in its glorious mission, 
high in the motives it sets before us, high in the 
objects to which it leads, high in its Divine Head 
and Founder ? " Then he spoke out admirably as to 
the popular use of the word Protestant. 

Sir Archibald Edmonstone, who died in 1871, was 
a Churchman of the type displayed in his own book, 
The Christian Gentleman's Daily Walk. In the quiet 
life of the true gentleman he was one of the fruits of 
the Church Movement, unobtrusive, and but little 
heard or talked of. Some of his other works were: 



280 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Family Lectures for Holy Seasons and Saints' Days ; 
Portions of the Psalms selected and arranged for De- 
votional Purposes ; Devotional Reflections in Verse, ar- 
ranged in accordance with the Church Calendar. The 
Christian Gentleman was a practical book, presenting 
a course of Christian conduct in the higher walks of 
life. 

In early days Mr. J. W. Henley was looked up to 
as a true Churchman and gentleman. Squire of Water- 
perry, Oxfordshire, he was a Magdalen College man, 
and spent a long and active life in many positions of 
trust and importance. He was President of the Board 
of Trade under Lord Derby. 

Baron Alderson was for years not only a lawyer of 
high repute, but also a staunch Churchman. He will 
be remembered by many of the regular congregation 
of St. Mary Magdalen's, Munster Square, of which 
church he laid the foundation stone in 1849. He was 
a Cambridge man, and was in frequent consultation 
and correspondence with the most active Churchmen 
of the Movement, and from his high standing as a 
lawyer was ever ready to help and advise in all cases 
of doubt and difficulty. He wrote a learned pamphlet 
on the meaning and scope of the Royal Supremacy. A 
memoir of this eminent and Christian lawyer was 
published by J. W. Parker, in 1859, with extracts 
from his Charges : it tells of his care for juvenile 
criminals, and, indeed, for all who were the subjects 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 281 

of his office. One of the most touching things in the 
memoir is a letter written to a younger brother, a 
scholar of Charterhouse, during his last illness. 

Lord John Manners, now the Duke of Rutland, who 
was a statesman and a poet, was looked up to by many 
as almost a knight of chivalry and orthodoxy. His 
life was a very practical and busy one. He was for 
some time Chief Commissioner for Public Works, but 
found time to write a good deal ; among other works, 
A Plea for Public Holidays. So now he might heartily 
join in the plea for the revived observance of the day 
of our patron saint, St. George. In 1841 he wrote 
England's Trust, and in 1850 English Ballads. 

Sidney Herbert (first Lord Herbert of Lea) well 
deserves mention in the record of the Church Move- 
ment. When Mr. Thomas Mozley was Fellow of Oriel, 
he described Sidney Herbert, at the gentlemen com- 
moners' side of the high table, as the grandest and most 
interesting historic figure then at Oxford, one not to 
be forgotten ; very tall, with large soft eyes, a gentle 
expression, and an unmistakable likeness to George 
Herbert, the sainted poet of Bemerton; few would 
have thought then that he was the man to perform an 
important part in the administration of a great war, 
under most difficult circumstances, as Secretary for 
War, in 1852. He was devoted to his work, and 
his early death in 1861 was a national loss. The 
subject of dwellings for the poor and other plans for 



282 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

their comfort and benefit had his active help. He built 
Wilton Church at a cost of 30,000, and another 
church at Sandymount, Dublin. 

Sir Stephen Glynne, of Hawarden, was a Churchman 
and an antiquary, a learned archaeologist and historian, 
leaving notes and details of many thousand churches ; 
a man of singular refinement and remarkable industry. 
At his death Hawarden became the property of a son 
of Mr. Gladstone. 

Colonel Short, of Odiham in Hampshire, who died 
in 1857, was one of the most active and hardworking 
of laymen; so indefatigable was he in promoting all 
works of charity and religion which came within his 
reach that he might almost be called a public man. 
To all who were honestly fighting under the banner of 
the Church of England, Colonel Short's ready sympathy 
and, whenever possible, his energetic assistance, were 
never wanting ; it was esteemed a happiness to enjoy 
his friendship. He was the son of Charles Short, Esq., 
of Woodlands, Hants. In 1814 he joined the Cold- 
stream Guards as an ensign; was present at Quatre 
Bras in June, 1815, and at Waterloo on the 18th, 
and went through the whole of the campaign. After 
he had retired from active military life he still worked 
for his chosen profession, and published several works 
on military subjects and duties. From 1837 Colonel 
Short was actively engaged, and was a director of the 
Royal Mail Steam Packet Company. He lived in 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 283 

Queen Square, Westminster, and was mainly instru- 
mental in substituting the handsome church of Christ- 
church, Broadway, for the little chapel that stood on 
that site, and helped the clergy and the poor around. 
In 1847 the House of Charity, Soho, was founded ; 
Colonel Short was on the Council, and by his inde- 
fatigable work helped largely to its success, and worked 
for it up to the time of his death. In 1852 he settled 
at Odiham, and there, too, the church was his care ; 
the high wooden pews disappeared, the chantry was 
put in order, and the almshouses rebuilt. Colonel 
Short was brother to the revered Bishop Short, of 
Adelaide. 

Of Mr. J. D. Chambers, Recorder of Salisbury, it 
will be known to many of our readers that, both as a 
learned lawyer and as a liturgiologist, his best services 
have been, and are still, given to the Church ; and many 
handsome volumes testify to his research and industry, 
among others translations of the old Latin Hymns. 
Mr. Chambers was on the council of the Union 
newspaper, and was one of the chief members of the 
Society for promoting the Unity of Christendom, an 
object all Christians must approve of; if union is 
strength, disunion must be weakness. (His death has 
been recorded since these pages were first written.) 

Sir Perceval Heywood's zeal and work for the 
Church will be fresh in the minds and hearts of many, 
as patron of St. John's, Miles Platting, and as munificent 



284 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

donor and helper to the St. Nicholas' College Schools 
at Denstone and elsewhere. Speaking of these schools 
and the immense benefit they have been to the rising 
generation, we well remember that the support and 
assistance of the Marquis of Salisbury, when Lord 
Eobert Cecil, was heartily given to them : of this family 
Viscount Cranborne (who was blind) wrote a History 
of France for Children, in a series of letters, which was 
published by Mr. Masters. 

Mr. F. H. Dickinson, of Kingweston, Somersetshire, 
should be mentioned as a scholar and Churchman. 
Among his publications were Convocation and the Laity, 
1857 ; and A List of old Service Books, according to the 
Uses of the Anglican Church, with the Possessors. 

Alderman Bennett, of Manchester, was a courageous 
and eloquent champion in all Church matters, and one 
who gave of his substance most liberally in church 
building, etc. 

J. H. Markland, of Bath, whither he retired in 
1841, was a most active and learned lawyer, anti- 
quarian and Churchman, valued by many friends and 
entrusted with important interests and large charitable 
funds. In 1849 he was made D.C.L. of Oxford. He 
died in 1864, and a window in Bath Abbey Church 
was erected to his memory. He was the author 
of many valuable archaeological works : Remarks on 
English Churches; Reverence due to Holy Places; and 
Ken's Prayers for Persons coming to the Baths of Bath. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 



285 



Of Mr. Henry Tritton and Mr. Henry Hoare, the 
two bankers of London, it would be difficult to say 
much; for their quiet, unobtrusive lives and splendid 
munificence were, as was intended, little known to the 
outside world. 

Earl Beauchamp's years of work are still fresh in 
the minds of most of us. From his early days, as the 
Honourable Frederick Lygon, he was tirst and foremost 
in every excellent work, founding, building, and en- 
dowing ; and such a monument as the College at New- 
land, Malvern, with many another Keble College, the 
Pusey Memorial, etc. will testify to generations 
of this nobleman's piety and devotion. He published 
several most useful devotional works, especially the 
Day Hours of the Church of England, of value to the 
numerous sisterhoods and religious foundations, pub- 
lished, too, at a price that brings it within the means 
of every one. He also edited Liber Regalis for the 
Roxburgh Club. 

I have already mentioned General Gomm and 
Colonel Moorsom, and to them we must add the names 
of Sir Alfred Slade, Colonel Shaw-Hellyer, and of 
Colonel Erririgton, who printed a Book of Prayer for 
Soldiers, with texts referring to the soldier's office, 
morning and evening prayers and psalms, prayers for 
the eve of battle, when wounded, on a march, at 
sea, etc. 

Henry Styleman Lestrange, of an old Norfolk family. 



286 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

must be included in our record. An Eton and Christ- 
Church man, he was most enthusiastic in all that 
concerned religious art and architecture. He painted 
the roof of Ely Cathedral, which took him four years ; 
and he was two years decorating in St. Alban's, 
Holborn, under Mr. Butterfield. Mr. Lestrange was 
thoroughly at home in the work of the Church Move- 
ment. 

Among good Churchmen, who were also good land- 
lords and masters, the name of Mr. Eliot Warburton, 
of Arley, North wich, Cheshire, should be recorded. 
The noble chapel he built there was an architectural 
gem, and it was afterwards enlarged to take in the 
tenants and labourers on the estate. 

Mr. Gambier Parry, of Highnam Court, Gloucester, 
must be mentioned as a zealous Churchman. He built 
the beautiful church there, and with his own hands 
helped to paint the roof of Ely Cathedral. 

The late Earl of Fife built a private chapel at Innes 
House, Aberdeenshire ; and on the birthday of Lord 
Macduff, the present earl (now Duke of Fife), the 
father and son presented the petition for consecration ; 
the chapel was well and correctly ordered, and evidently 
the chaplain's office there was a reality, and not a mere 
title, as it had so often been. 

On special occasions laymen were found who were 
ready to lift up their voices in the cause of truth and 
purity; and in 1858 Mr. Holman Hunt, the painter of 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 287 

the "Light of the World," etc., exposed some sad mis- 
doings iii the case of a Christian convert and an Arab 
at Jerusalem ; Mr. Hunt deserves many thanks for his 
courage and trouble in the good cause. 

Another religious painter, and perhaps the great 
devotional painter of the time, was William Dyce, the 
Royal Academician. He was said to be the originator 
here of the pre-Raphaelite school. Overbeck and other 
German painters about 1828 much approved of the 
young artist's work on principles they had long been 
working for. Dyce became director of the Government 
School of Design, and Professor of Fine Arts at King's 
College ; he gave lectures, and painted. The late 
Prince Consort purchased his beautiful " Madonna 
and Child" in 1846, which was engraved in the Art 
Journal ; he was selected to paint some of the frescoes 
in the new Houses of Parliament. But as a religious 
artist and Churchman we are chiefly speaking of him, 
and most of us well remember his charming picture in 
the Academy of George Herbert at Bemerton. As a 
church musician, too, he takes a very high place ; as 
one of the founders of the Motett Society in connection 
with the Ecclesiological Society, and as compiler and 
editor of the two beautiful volumes of the Prayer-Book 
with the ancient musical notation superbly printed in 
black letter with borders. Lastly, we must record 
his defence of Church principles in his forcible reply to 
Mr. Ruskin's Construction of Sheepfolds : it was a 



288 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

valuable controversial pamphlet entitled, Shepherd 
and Sheep, and was a full reply to Mr. Euskin, whose 
Puritan training had then landed him in a system where 
the idea of a living, teaching, historical church was 
entirely lost sight of, and with Mr. Dyce, as with all 
the Tractarian writers, this idea, or rather the revival 
of this great principle, was an essential. 

Of Mr. Brett, the noble and beloved doctor of whom 
we have spoken before, there is much more to be told. 
The wondrous influence he exercised on all who knew 
and valued him reached far and wide, in the years after 
his death on even to the present time. Of his profes- 
sion Dr. Crawford and Dr. Golding Bird were Church- 
men. 

One layman whom we have already mentioned, Mr. 
John L. Anderdon, well deserves to be remembered 
in further detail. Mr. Anderdon resided for many 
years at Chiselhurst, where his daughter was the wife 
of the vicar, the Rev. F. H. Murray, and there he will 
perhaps still be remembered. My first recollection of 
him was in the early years of the fifties, when he was 
partner in the firm of Manning & Anderdon, West 
India merchants, of New Bank Buildings ; his partner 
was Mr. Charles Manning, brother to Cardinal Manning. 
At that time Mr. Anderdon was the very model of a 
refined English gentleman tall, thin, with fine features, 
and brilliant eyes, with a most gentle and winning ex- 
pression ; to those who had the privilege of knowing 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 289 

him, his courtesy and unvarying kindness were simply 
impressive ; an unobtrusive, most consistent Churchman 
in every way, never altering or varying, staunch and 
true throughout his life, a friend to be depended on, 
generous, strong, and unfailing ; a gentleman and man 
of business, he was also a scholar, and, though a layman, 
he was almost a divine ; as a Churchman, he was of the 
school of George Herbert, Izaac Walton, and Bishop 
Ken ; to the memory of the latter he was indeed devoted, 
and one of his chief works was a Life of Bishop Ken, 
first in one large octavo volume with engraved portrait, 
and a second edition in two volumes ; several handsome 
editions of Ken's Prayers, Hymns, and his Approach 
to the Altar (the latter still, I think, in print); 
he also wrote a work entitled The Messiah, a devo- 
tional and practical life of our Blessed Lord. A lover 
of beauty in Nature and Art, he published in earlier 
days The River Dove, and other similar works. In the 
City Mr. Anderdon was for years a well-known pre- 
sence, and a characteristic story of his love of the 
beautiful in Art may be told here. In his walks down 
Cheapside he was frequently attracted by some small 
water-colour sketches, many of which he purchased, 
and after a while was curious to know the painter and 
his address. On arriving at the address, he asked for 
Mr. Leitch, and as he was scene-painting at the Victoria 
Theatre, Mr. Anderdon went there and found him at 
work, and soon after arranged to send the artist abroad 

19 



2 9 o RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

for some years to study and paint; he became the 
famous artist, W. L. Leitch, who taught the Queen, and 
whose works still live and are valued. As a memorial 
of his kindness, Mr. Anderdon accepted some of the 
artist's beautiful drawings, though he was not a collec- 
tor like his brother of Upper Grosvenor Street, known 
as the donor to our National Gallery of Hogarth's 
wonderful picture of " Sigismunda ". 

Arthur H. Dyke Acland, one of a family of excellent 
Churchmen, friends of Bishop Jebb, Alexander Knox, 
etc., must not be forgotten. He was the compiler of 
Liturgia Domestica, a most useful book of household 
devotion, and of the Hours of Prayers, with an intro- 
duction and a most pathetic dedication, at the end of 
which was reproduced, in a woodcut, the well-known 
seal of Bishop Ken, the crucifix as an anchor. 

Sir Charles Anderson, of Broughton, Lincolnshire, 
was a typical English country gentleman, taking a 
leading part in all the affairs of the county, and uni- 
versally looked up to ; he was educated at Oriel College, 
and was known to Newman (going with him on a tour 
to Egypt), Keble, and the great leaders ; but it was 
Keble who made a deep and life-long impression on 
him, and whose firm grasp of the position of the English 
Church he always thoroughly retained. He was an 
accomplished archaeologist, the author of a work called 
Ancient Models, containing hints on church building, 
with illustrations, published by Burns; a staunch 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 291 

supporter of his parish priest, a regular worshipper at 
all Church functions and kindred gatherings, most free 
from cant or unreality. He was a great friend of the 
late Sir George Prevost, and his daughter is the wife 
of the present baronet. 

A great friend of Sir Charles Anderson was Mr. 
Curtis Hayward, also an Oriel man, of Quedgeley, in 
Gloucestershire and in that county he occupied a 
very similar position a model squire and a thorough 
staunch and energetic Churchman ; he married a sister 
of Archdeacon Harrison, one of the writers of the 
Tracts for the Times, the great friend of Pusey and 
Newman. On succeeding to the estate, he at once 
took measures to convert the living of which he was 
patron into a rectory, at a very considerable sacrifice of 
yearly income to himself. Mr. Hay ward's brother 
married a daughter of the late Canon Wade, of Glou- 
cester. 

Other names could be added, such as Mr. Wilbra- 
ham, of Eode Hall, Cheshire, whose daughter, Frances 
M. Wilbraham, wrote some useful tales on Church lines ; 
The Loyal Heart and other tales, translated from the 
German ; also a history of the Kingdom of Judah, from 
the death of Solomon to the Babylonish captivity. 

A list of the working women of the Church Move- 
ment could be made : of such were Miss Byron, Miss 
Sellon, Lady Elizabeth Clements, Lady Gomm, Mrs. 
Pusey, Lady Emily Pusey and others. 



292 RECOLLECTIONS OF OXFORD MOVEMENT. 

A few living Church laymen must not be omitted, 
Mr. Henry H. Gibbs, of the family of the founders of 
Keble College, Lord Nelson, Bichard Foster, G. A. 
Spottiswoode, Manley Hopkins, the Hawaiian Consul, 
and Lord Forbes, who himself wrote an admirable 
treatise on the Holy Eucharist ; he and the late Lord 
Forbes, his father, were both for some time resident 
at Brighton, and are remembered with much respect 
and affection by very many there, as always most 
kind and courteous and ready to help in every good 
Church work. There were hundreds of other excellent 
laymen throughout the nation, all helping on the 
revival heartily. 



CHAPTEE XIII. 

A VERY slight account of the publications of the Move- 
ment may enable those of the present day to estimate 
the labour and industry of the chief writers, and also 
of the publishers of the literature which, both directly 
and indirectly, was one result of the Tractarian Move- 
ment ; it may serve also to give some idea of the 
influence and spread of knowledge on these particular 
lines, from the octavo volume of essays, sermons, or 
treatises down to the small penny tract, brightly and 
vigorously written. Some one compared these tracts to 
the " small arms of the Church Militant ". Take any 
popular book on any subject of which ten thousand 
copies are sold, and read ; it leaves an impression and 
influence on a great many who read it carefully and 
who remember what they read. This may be said of 
any one ordinary single book ; and the literature of 
the Church Movement consisted of thousands of books, 
large and small, the object being to raise the English 
Church to the height of her own standard ; claiming 
for her a place as a true part of Catholic Christendom. 
This was the foundation of all that was written and 

attempted. 

( 2 93) 



294 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

The literature of the Church Movement included 
the chief publications of four publishing houses 
Messrs. Eivington, Parker, Mozley and Masters ; the 
catalogues by the beginning of 1850 contained many 
hundreds of publications, and were often pamphlets of 
fifty or sixty pages. Some early works chiefly by Mr. 
Gresley and Mr. Paget were published by James of 
Eugeley, afterwards by J. T. Walters, who was ordained 
and retired to a country living. The name of Mr. 
Lomax, of Lichfield, appeared on some few of the title- 
pages. In London, Mr. Burns had much of the early 
Tractarian publications: a vast number of children's 
books, tales, allegories, tracts on Christian doctrine 
and practice; Bishop (then Archdeacon) Wilberforce's 
sermons; allegories, charges, letters, etc., works by 
Eobert Anderson of Brighton, and Mr. Dods worth : 
the Baptismal Offices, Illustrated from the Uses of 
Salisbury, Cologne, etc., by T. M. Fallow, first Incum- 
bent of St. Andrew's, Wells Street ; reprints of E. 
Nelson, Bishop Jolly, Lawrence, Hacket, Ken, etc. ; 
the Fairy Bower and Lost Brooch, by Mrs. Thomas 
Mozley, Dr. Newman's sister; treatises, sermons, etc. 
by the older divines and fathers. For some time 
the Magazine for the Young, edited by Mrs. T. 
Mozley, and the Englishman's Magazine, were two 
useful serials. 

Mr. Burns, originally, I think, a Presbyterian, was 
one of the regular congregation of old Margaret Chapel, 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 295 

and was a man of some learning and great taste, which 
he displayed in his publications ; borders were engraved 
on wood, with head and tail pieces of artistic designs ; 
his book, Poems and Pictures, with poetry and drawings 
after Selous, Harvey, etc., was almost the earliest of 
those guinea table books, which became, for a few 
years, quite a feature with many publishers. One of the 
most successful of his books, the Eucharistica, was 
entirely compiled by Mr. Burns himself, the Bishop 
of Oxford writing the introduction only : this work 
had a sale of some hundreds of thousands ; the com- 
panion volume, Horce Sacrce, was compiled in the same 
way, with a preface by the Rev. T. Chandler, of Witley. 
When Mr. Burns seceded from the Church, the greater 
number of his publications were continued by Mr. 
Masters. 

Mr. Cleaver, of Baker Street, published for the Eev. 
W. J. E. Bennett, when he was at Portman Chapel. 
Mr. Toovey, then of St. James Street, published for 
Mr. Oakeley at Margaret Chapel, his Psalter, Bonaven- 
tura's Life of Christ, Sermons, Devotions for Holy 
Communion, etc. The late Mr. J. T. Hayes, started 
in what is now called South Eaton Place, and published 
for Mr. Bennett of St. Paul's, Kuightsbridge, Rev. R. 
M. Benson, and many other clergy ; he was long time 
a worshipper at St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, and St. Barna- 
bas's. Mr. Hodges, who came from Frome, made a 
small business in London. Many distinctly Church 



296 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

writers had their own publishing houses. The Kev. J. 
J. Blunt of Cambridge, author of Sermons ; The Parish 
Priest; The Early Fathers; Undesigned Coincidences; 
etc., published through Mr. Murray. Mr. Macmillan 
published later on for Miss Yonge ; Archer Butler's 
most valuable Sermons, Philosophy, and reply to Dr. 
Newman's Theory of Development ; also for Mr. Hard- 
wick and Mr. Proctor as well as for some Cambridge 
churchmen of note ; Mayor's Churchmen of the Seven- 
teenth Century, Ferrar, etc. Messrs. Bell and Daldy 
were also publishers for some of the well-known 
writers ; Eev. W. Denton's Commentaries, Mrs. 
Gatty's Parables, and some standard Church poets like 
Miss Proctor ; also Prebendary Sadler's works, some of 
the most valuable contributions to Church literature, 
viz., The Second Adam, or New Birth in Baptism, and his 
Church Doctrine Bible Truth, a book that has perhaps done 
better service than any later work we know of, written 
to prove that the distinct system of teaching found 
throughout the Prayer Book is exactly in accord with 
the dogmatic system found in the Gospels and Epistles 
of the New Testament ; it is remarkable, too, that no 
attempt to reply to this work has ever been made by 
those who so constantly plead for the Bible and the 
Bible only, and condemn Church teaching as unscriptu- 
ral; his One Offering is a complete treatise on the 
Holy Communion, its doctrine and ceremonial, in rela- 
tion to the Atonement ; Mr. Bell also published church 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 297 

music, hymns, canticles, etc. Mr. Ollivier, at 59 Pall 
Mall, published the Parish Choir, and a few Church 
tales. Mr. Mowbray at Oxford was a Church publisher 
later on. 

The house of Rivington was always known as 
publishing on the old orthodox lines, and, indeed, for 
very many years had reprints and editions of standard 
Church writers, such as Nelson, Ken, Law, Jeremy 
Taylor; the works of such pioneers as R. Wilson 
Evans, author of the Rectory of Valehead ; Bishop 
Jebb, Alex. Knox, Bowdler, etc. ; publishing The Whole 
Duty of Man, Week's Preparation, the British Critic 
for many years, and starting the Church Review as 
a quarterly on the same principles. They were the 
projectors of the Theological Library, edited by Hugh 
James Rose, and to which the Rev. C. Webb Le Bas 
contributed. Some of R. Wilson Evans' works appeared 
in this library ; some books which appeared separately, 
such as Newman's Arians, were originally proposed for 
this library ; they published the Tracts for the Times, 
and Newman's Sermons, Dr. Pusey's Sermons, Dr. 
Hook's, Manning's, James Mozley's, and most of the 
works of the great writers and preachers ; Dr. Words- 
worth's Commentary, the Plain Sermons by contributors 
to the Tracts for the Times, Mr. Isaac Williams' 
Sermons and Commentaries, and the Treasury of Devo- 
tion ; and, later on, the sermons of the greatest preacher 
of our own times, Henry Parry Liddon, the one who 



298 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

had such power and influence, whose preaching will 
live on. 

Mr. John Henry Parker, the Oxford publisher, a 
learned archaeologist and student of architecture, was 
a prominent figure in the Tractarian Movement, and 
issued its great publications, libraries, and series of 
works. The reprints alone from most of the best 
Church divines made quite a library in themselves, all 
printed in excellent style. Church literature for the 
million was also done in cheaper forms for general cir- 
culation ; cheap reward books, tales for the young men 
and women of England on social and religious sub- 
jects, sacred prints and cottage pictures, private prayers, 
family prayers, books and tracts on the Prayer-Book, 
the seasons, public worship, etc. ; also the Penny Post, a 
popular monthly periodical, Keble's Christian Year, issued 
in various editions, all shapes and sizes, thousands and 
tens of thousands year after year. Mr. James Parker, 
his son and successor, has rendered service to the 
Church in historical works on her liturgy and ritual. 

Mr. Mozley, the father of that talented family who 
took such an active part in the Tractarian Movement, 
was a well-known printer and publisher at Derby, at 
first chiefly of standard useful books. His sons, John 
and Charles, carried on and developed the business ; 
printing and publishing the Christian Remembrancer 
(successor to the earlier British Magazine, and British 
Critic, which latter Dr. Newman and Thomas Mozley 



OXFORD MOVEMENT 299 

had edited) ; this for many years held a very high place 
as the Church Quarterly "Review, edited by William 
Scott, of Christ Church, Hoxton, and contributed to by 
such men as Dr. Neale, James B. Mozley, Robert Wil- 
berforce, and others. Among their publications were 
Eobert Wilberforce on Holy Baptism, The Holy Eucha- 
rist, and The Incarnation; works by Mr. Rickards, 
Canon Trevor, Caswall ; the Practical Christian's 
Library, Lives of Englishmen, Herbert, Walton, Kettle- 
well, Hooker, etc., Jackson's Stories on the Collects, 
several Hymnals, Church Poetry, the Lyra Apostolica ; 
small popular tales Bessie Gray, The Conceited Pig, 
and Michael the Chorister. The Monthly Packet had a 
special value of its own, under its well-known editor, 
Miss Yonge. 

The rapid growth of the Movement may be imagined 
from a short sketch of the rise and progress of another pub- 
lishing house, that of Mr. Masters in Aldersgate Street. 
Mr. Masters was a Staffordshire man, apprenticed to 
Mr. Lomax, of Lichfield; he came to London, about 1827, 
to a small house on the west side of Aldersgate Street, 
from which he moved in 1838 to No. 33 on the other 
side, with printing offices later on in Bartholomew 
Close. His first publications were quite general ones : 
Throne Crick's Commercial Traveller, Miss Bunbury's 
Rides in the Pyrenees, etc. His connection with 
Staffordshire brought Mr. Gresley and Mr. Paget, two 
of the ablest writers of sermons, tales, allegories, etc., 



300 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

there were sixty or seventy works by these, two authors 
alone. On Mr. Burns' secession the Church work carne 
on Mr. Masters like a flood, and taxed his resources and 
powers to the utmost : but his energy and practical 
knowledge stood him in good stead ; and about 1856-60 
his catalogue was a book of 140 pages, a thousand 
volumes and pamphlets, some of them large and im- 
portant books, such as, Badger's Nestorians, Neale's 
Eastern Church, etc., works by W. Heygate, Dr. Irons, 
Bishop of Brechin, T. T. Carter, T. Chamberlain, 
Denison, Helmore, Dr. Gauntlett, Cope and Stretton's 
Visitatio Infirmorum, Miss Yonge, S. C. Malan, Dr. 
Mill, Bishop Milman, E. Monro, Henry Newland, 
G. A. Poole, E. Redhead, Eobt. Brett, Alex. Watson, 
Bishop Woodford, etc. Mr. Masters' energy was un- 
failing, and he was devoted to his work, with a real 
love for it ; he had excellent helpers, the head of the 
printing office, Mr. Essex ; his reader, Mr. Wright, 
an admirable scholar ; Mr. Phillips, and Mr. Stokes ; 
as well as a partner who took much of the literary 
editing work and preparation of MSS. from 1848 to 
1863. Dr. Neale records, in his early diary, when Mr. 
Masters had just undertaken Spelman on Sacrilege, 
and some larger works, that " Masters is working away 
like a young elephant". Mr. Brett and the Eev. T. 
Chamberlain were ever ready to help in the editing and 
arrangement of small works on Church doctrine, practice 
and devotion, such as Pocket Manual of Prayers, What 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 301 

to Believe, Simple Prayers, etc. Of serial works, there 
were The Juvenile Englishman's Library, The Juvenile 
Englishman's Historical Library, London Parochial 
Tracts, Parish Tracts, The Church and the Million, 
Tracts for Working People, The Poor Churchman's 
Friend, The Churchman's Companion, from 1847 to 
1883; The Ecclesiastic, a theological monthly, 1846 
to 1868, mainly edited by the Eev. Thomas Chamber- 
lain ; among the contributors were H. J. Coleridge, 
E. A. Freeman, Beresford Hope, J. G. Cazenove, 
Dr. Neale, Eobert Wilberforce, Bishop Forbes, Jus- 
tice Coleridge, Lord Campden, Lord John Manners, 
N. Pocock, W. J. Irons, J. Baines, H. N. Oxenham, 
H. Newland, W. Denton, T. W. Perry, and Dr. Little- 
dale. 

The Ecclesiologist, 1845 to 1868, published under the 
superintendence of the Ecclesiological (late Cambridge 
Caniden) Society, was a complete record of the improve- 
ment in church architecture, new churches, restorations, 
works of art, art societies, church music, etc. Some 
of the contributors were Eev. B. Webb, A. J. B. Beres- 
ford Hope, Dr. Neale, G. E. Street, W. Scott, Sir 
Stephen Glynne, F. H. Dickinson, J. D. Chambers, 
etc. 

Of the Hymns for Little Children, by Mrs. Alexander 
(Miss Humphry), wife of the Bishop of Derry, first 
published in 1848 four sizes on sale sixty-nine 
editions have been published, or nearly 700,000 copies ; 



302 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

of her Moral Songs, thirteen editions, or over 70,000 
copies. 

The Churchman's Diary, commenced in 1845 with 
2000, has a circulation of nearly 10,000. 

Many diaries, almanacs and calendars were compiled ; 
one was an Ecclesiastical Almanac of 1845, without 
authority but compiled from authentic sources, published 
by Mr. J. Leslie, of Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn 
Fields. 

Of newspapers, the Morning Chronicle and the 
Morning Post were favourable, as were the Day news- 
paper, 1861, the John Bull, and the English Church- 
man, for the early years of its life. The Guardian 
was projected in 1846 in the chambers of Mr. T. H. 
Hadden, an Oxford double-first (brother to Mr. Arthur 
H. Hadden, the historian), Mr. Sharpe, the banker, and 
others assisting; it was, as now, the family Church news- 
paper, ably conducted for very many years by the late 
Mr. Martin Sharpe. The Union newspaper flourished 
for a time ; and the Church Times, which took its bold 
and firm stand under Mr. G. J. Palmer, deserves special 
mention. The Church Review, under the English Church 
Union, too, holds on its orthodox way. 

One can only hint at the various guilds and associa- 
tions, sisterhoods, unions, confraternities, such as the 
English Church Union, originally called the Church of 
England Protection Society, the Guild of St. Alban, and 
hundreds of kindred societies, all doing special work for 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 303 

the Church, the poor and afflicted, and all aiming at a 
rule of life and devotion higher and more ennobling. 

One of the earliest of these guilds was founded in 
Oxford, on the Wednesday before Christmas, 1844, 
called the Guild or Brotherhood of St. Mary the Virgin ; 
its original purpose was the study of ecclesiastical art, 
to which were afterwards added certain religious and 
charitable objects. The resolutions were : 1. To rise 
early. 2. To be moderate in food. 3. To devote some 
time each day to serious reading. 4. To speak evil of 
no man, especially those in authority. 5. To avoid 
places of dissipation, and aim at recollectedness. 6. To 
repeat the " Gloria Patri" morning and evening. 7. To 
pray daily for the unity of the Church, the conversion 
of sinners, the advancement of the faithful and for each 
other as brethren. The title was after a time altered to 
the Brotherhood of the Holy Trinity, with a Master 
(a priest), an Almoner (a deacon), and an Amanuensis. 
In addition to the other rules there were special ones, 
viz., never to quote Holy Scripture except for a religious 
end ; when in company never to drink in all above 
three glasses of wine ; to observe simplicity in dress. 
Their manual had forms of prayer for special occasions. 

I will add, at the risk of some repetition, a list of the 
chief writers, classified as far as possible. 

Theologians and Dogmatic Writers. J. H. Newman, 
E. B. Pusey, K. J. Wilberforce, R. Owen, J. J. Blunt, 
W. E. Scudamore, W. H. Mill, Archer Butler, J. B. 



304 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Mozley, W. J. Irons, H. J. Rose, Bishop Forbes, R. H. 
Fronde, William Sewell, J. B. Morris, W. Bright, Thos. 
Chamberlain, H. P. Liddon, F. M. Sadler. 

Sermon Writers and Preachers. J. H. Newman, E. 
B. Pusey, Archdeacon Manning, John Keble, Thomas 
Keble, Isaac Williams, W. Gresley, F. E. Paget, J. B. 
Mozley, E. Blencowe, S. Rickards, Bishop Armstrong, 
Dr. Neale, G. R. Prynne, W. J. E. Bennett, Jas. Skinner, 
Bishop Woodford, H. Newland, H. P. Liddon, etc. 

Historians. S. R. Maitland, W. Palmer, E. Churton, 
W. F. Hook, A. W. Haddan, Bishop Stubbs, Henry 
Caswall, Canon Ashwell, etc. 

Devotional Writers and Commentators. E. B. Pusey, 
J. M. Neale, Isaac Williams, R. Brett, W. E. Scuda- 
more, T. T. Carter, C. Wordsworth, R. C. Trench, Dean 
Goulburn, Chas. Marriott, Dr. Littledale, etc. 

Poets and Hymn Writers. R. W. Evans, J. H. New- 
man, J. Keble, Isaac Williams, Aubrey De Vere, R. S. 
Hawker, J. M. Neale, F. W. Faber, J. Chandler, R. C. 
Trench, H. Caswell, W. J. Copeland, W. J. Blew, 
H. Collins, W. J. Irons, Mrs. Alexander, Miss Proctor, 
F. G. Lee, J. Fuller Russell, Dr. Monsell, Miss Inge- 
low, Miss Rossetti, and others. 

Stories and Allegories. W. Gresley, F. E. Paget, J. M. 
Neale, S. Wilberforce, W. Adams, W. E. Heygate, 
Bishop Milman, Miss Yonge, Miss Sewell, the author 
of Tales of Kirkleck, etc., Miss Ingelow, Miss Skene. 

On Law, Ritual, and Liturgiology. W. Maskell, 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 305 

Canon Trevor, J. Fuller Eussell, W. J. Blew, T. W. 
Perry, C. Grueber, Dr. Littledale, J. D. Chambers, 
James Parker. 

Controversialist* in Defence. Bishop Phil potts, E. B. 
Pusey, W. J. E. Bennett, J. H. Newman, W. Maskell, 
W. B. Barter, T. W. Allies, W. J. Irons, G. A. Denison, 
C. Grueber, T. W. Perry, Dr. Littledale, Canon MacColl. 

On Art and Architecture. A. J. B. Beresford Hope, 
A. W. Pugin, F. A. Paley, J. M. Neale, B. Webb, G. A. 
Poole, E. A. Freeman, G. G. Scott, G. E. Street, J. H. 
Parker, J. Carpenter, W. Burges, G. Truefitt, W. Butter- 
field, J. W. Hallam, Edmond Sedding, W. Dyce, and 
others.* 

Church Music. W. Dyce, Dr. Druitt, Sir F. Ouseley, 
Sir Henry Baker, Rev. J. W. Kumsay, Dr. Gauntlett, 
E. Redhead, T. Helmore, W. S. Rockstro, Dr. Dykes, 
A. H. Brown. 

Foremost in the revival of church music was the 
Parish Choir ; the name of the originator and editor was 
Dr. Robert Druitt ; like his namesake Robert Brett, 
Dr. Druitt for love of the Church gave much valuable 

* Benjamin Ferray, who died in August, 1880, deserves good 
mention as a church architect, eminent in the early days of the 
Gothic revival ; as an authority on church planning and propor- 
tions he had scarcely a rival. The builder of St. Stephen's, West- 
minster, the restorer of Wells Cathedral and Lady Chapel, author 
of the Antiquities of the Priory of Christ Church, Hants, writer of 
Recollections of A. Welby Pugin, whose pupil he was. He was also 
one of the most perfect draughtsmen of his day; a thorough Church- 
man, who also gave much help in the revival of church music. 

20 



3o6 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

time to editing and writing in the Parish Choir and 
other such works. Sir W. Cope, Mr. Helmore, W. J. 
E. Bennett, W. H. Monk were also contributors up to 
1844, as Dr. Druitt points out in his Popular Tract 
on Church Music, with Remarks on its Moral and Political 
Importance. The musical part of Divine Service in 
most parish churches is well known to have been most 
wretched ; and as in art and architecture by the 
Arundel Society and Ecclesiological Society, so in the 
sister art of music the Church Movement brought 
great changes. Pamphlets and sermons were issued 
on the subject ; the choir of the Motett Society, con- 
nected with the Ecclesiological Society, chiefly pro- 
moted by Mr. Dyce, held its concerts at the Archi- 
tectural Eooms in Conduit Street ; and here, for some 
years, the very best music was to be heard ; rnotetts, 
madrigals, masses, services from the ancient Mechlin, 
and other office books, from Palestrina, Cherubini; 
carols and chorales, the " Vexilla Regis," the " Passion 
Music" of Bach, the works of Ravenscroft, and volumes 
of anthems and services from these best sources were 
published. The " Concordia " concerts were given at 
this time, and the interest in all this musical revival 
led to more care in the performance of the musical 
parts of Divine Service ; and church after church felt 
the influence, helped by the works of Mr. Helmore, Mr. 
Redhead, Dr. Gauntlett and others. 

Bishop Hamilton, when first he went to Salisbury as 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 307 

canon, and afterwards as precentor, set a good example, 
selecting chants and anthems, making the music, as 
far as might be, illustrate the Church's seasons and 
teaching ; he was well seconded in his efforts to elevate 
the lives of the lay vicars and choristers to a higher esti- 
mate of their work by Dean Lear, the Rev. W. B. Heath- 
cote and others. So cathedral after cathedral carried on 
the work of improvement in careful reverence ; and the 
record now given of the work of our cathedrals on all 
sides is much due to the stirring times of the Church 
Revival. But of all parts of church music revived, 
that of the hymns of the Church was by far the most 
important. He was a wise man who said, " Let me make 
the ballads, and who will may make the laws ". The 
enormous influence of hymn singing in every religious 
body speaks for itself. Though at first Tate and Brady 
were sung in Old Margaret Chapel, leaflets with special 
hymns for festivals, etc., were used very soon, and in 
a few years, some dozens of pioneers to Hymns Ancient 
and Modern led the way. Small hymnals, compiled 
by various clergy for the use of their congregations, 
were published by Dr. Irons, Dr. Oldknow and others. 
One of the principal works used more or less in every 
collection was the translations by Dr. Neale of the old 
hymns of the Church in the Hymnal Noted, set to 
the old notation by Mr. Helmore, published by Novello. 
One of the earliest of these hymnals was compiled by 
Mr. Keble and Earl Nelson, at the request of Bishop 



3 o8 RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 

Hamilton of Salisbury, called the Salisbury Hymnal. 
The old evangelical hymns of Wesley, Toplady and 
others were used, care being taken to give them an 
orthodox tone, by adding the "Gloria" at the end of each 
hymn. Mr. Eoundell Palmer's (Lord Selborne) book 
was a great help to the exact form of most of these 
hymns. Almost all these hymnals were, in the course 
of a few years, merged in Hymns Ancient and Modern, 
compiled by the Rev. Sir Henry Baker and others, 
under the musical editorship of the late Mr. W. H. 
Monk, assisted by Dr. Stainer, Dr. Dykes and others. 
No hymnal has yet been so widely adopted, or been 
felt to encourage so well the love of hymn singing most 
natural to every phase of religion. Some hundreds of 
tunes written expressly for this work have made 
the hymns familiar far and wide. There is very much 
in a tune, too (the compilers of hymns A and M took 
care to retain all the grand old tunes, such as St. Anne and 
St. James); and it is said that when Dr. Dykes, who wrote 
the music to "Lead, kindly Light," was introduced 
to the author at the Oratory, Birmingham, Dr. New- 
man said, "Your tune has been quite the making of 
my hymn ". 

This revival of music in Divine service was not con- 
fined to the Church. Many Dissenting congregations 
improved their music on the same lines. Dr. Gauntlett 
taught the Islington and other Dissenters to chant the 
" Te Deum," the Bible Psalms, and Canticles. 



OXFORD MOVEMENT. 309 

I would wish in conclusion to point out the thoroughly 
English character of the literature : the Movement \va> 
essentially in and of the Church of England, and in all 
this vast amount of learning and writing there is little 
from foreign sources and still less that accords with the 
modern decrees, recent articles, and definitions of faith 
of the Eoman Church as we see her now. 

To prove the English character of the Movement we 
need but glance at the reprints made by the principal 
Tractarians : they were from Laud, Andrewes, Sutton, 
Hammond, Sherlock, Ken, Nelson, Wilson, Kettlewell, 
Taylor, Sparkes, Cosin, Lake, Beveridge, Bull, Butler, 
etc., etc., most of them truly Catholic, referring, as our 
Book of Common Prayer does, to ancient times and 
precedents.